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Rauma H.P.,University of Eastern Finland | Koivumaa-Honkanen H.,Institute of Clinical Medicine | Koivumaa-Honkanen H.,University of Oulu | Koivumaa-Honkanen H.,Kuopio University Hospital | And 6 more authors.
Psychosomatic Medicine | Year: 2014

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether and how global life satisfaction is associated with bone mineral density (BMD) and bone loss. Methods: A total of 2167 women from a cohort of Finnish women born in 1932 to 1941 were included in the cross-sectional and 1147 women in the 10-year longitudinal part of the present study. Participants responded to a postal enquiry and underwent femoral BMD densitometry in 1999 (baseline) and 2009 (follow-up). During the follow-up, their life satisfaction was repeatedly measured using a four-item scale. Self-reported data on health, life-style, and medication were used to adjust the multivariate linear regression models. Results: Mean (standard deviation) femoral BMD decreased over the 10-year follow-up from 880 (125) to 846 (122) mg/cm2. In the multivariate model, life satisfaction (p = .028) and its improvement (p = .001) predicted reduced bone loss, whereas hospitalization due to depression predicted increased bone loss (B = -0.523 annual % change, standard error = 0.212, p = .014). These effects were independent of each other. Conclusions: Easily assessed global life satisfaction should be taken into account when effects of aging and prevention of osteoporosis as well as health promotion in postmenopausal women are considered. Copyright © 2014 by the American Psychosomatic Society. Source


Torro nen R.,Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition | Kolehmainen M.,Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition | Sarkkinen E.,Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition | Sarkkinen E.,Oy Foodfiles Ltd | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2013

Starch in white wheat bread (WB) induces high postprandial glucose and insulin responses. For rye bread (RB), the glucose response is similar, whereas the insulin response is lower. In vitro studies suggest that polyphenol-rich berries may reduce digestion and absorption of starch and thereby suppress postprandial glycemia, but the evidence in humans is limited. We investigated the effects of berries consumed with WB or RB on postprandial glucose and insulin responses. Healthy females (n = 13-20) participated in 3 randomized, controlled, crossover, 2-h meal studies. They consumedWB or RB, both equal to 50 g available starch, with 150 g whole-berry pur ée or the same amount of bread without berries as reference. In study 1, WB was served with strawberries, bilberries, or lingonberries and in study 2 with raspberries, cloudberries, or chokeberries. In study 3, WB or RB was served with a mixture of berries consisting of equal amounts of strawberries, bilberries, cranberries, and blackcurrants. Strawberries, bilberries, lingonberries, and chokeberries consumed with WB and the berry mixture consumed with WB or RB significantly reduced the postprandial insulin response. Only strawberries (36%) and the berry mixture (with WB, 38%; with RB, 19%) significantly improved the glycemic profile of the breads. These results suggest than when WB is consumed with berries, less insulin is needed for maintenance of normal or slightly improved postprandial glucose metabolism. The lower insulin response to RB compared with WB can also be further reduced by berries. ©2013 American Society for Nutrition. Source


Rauma P.H.,University of Eastern Finland | Rauma P.H.,Institute of Clinical Medicine | Koivumaa-Honkanen H.,Institute of Clinical Medicine | Koivumaa-Honkanen H.,University of Oulu | And 6 more authors.
BMC Psychiatry | Year: 2013

Background: Self-report is commonly used as a source of information on the use of medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between self-reported and register-based information on the use of psychoactive medication, especially in respect to antidepressants, and reasons of non-reporting.Methods: Study subjects (n = 11,031) originated from a population-based cohort of postmenopausal women born in 1932-41 from Eastern Finland who responded to a postal enquiry in 1999. Self-reported currently used prescribed medications were compared to the National prescription register data. Diuretics served as a reference for psychoactive medications.Results: Only 44% out of 1,638 women reported their use of psychoactive medication when compared to the prescription register within a 4-month time window preceding their response to enquiry. Altogether, 55% out of 777 women reported their use of antidepressants and 29% out of 861 reported their use of other psychoactive medications. In comparison 83% reported their use of diuretics. After excluding the occasional use, an increase in sensitivity by approximately 10 percentage points was seen regardless of the group of psychoactive medication. High use and history of work disability pension due to psychiatric cause were associated with a much higher likelihood of reporting psychoactive medication use (for antidepressants 70% and 81%, respectively).Conclusions: For research purposes, self-reported current use of psychoactive medication seems to be a sufficient indicator for regular use of antidepressants or in respect of use of any psychoactive medication, for subjects with severe psychiatric disease. © 2013 Rauma et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Saarela A.-M.,Savonia University of Applied Sciences | Kantanen T.T.,University of Eastern Finland | Lapvetelainen A.T.,Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition | Mykkanen H.M.,Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition | Karppinen H.A.,Savonia UAS
International Journal of Consumer Studies | Year: 2013

The study investigates the benefits of using a verbal analysis protocol combined with wireless audiovisual observation technology to collect information about consumer behaviour in real-life environments. A sample of consumers (n=36) were given a task to select food products in 11 different categories in a supermarket. Combining methods enabled simultaneous collection of multiple forms of qualitative and quantitative data by recording data simultaneously from different perspectives: the consumer's visual range; the wider shopping environment, to provide context; the consumer's verbalizations. Qualitative data on extrinsic and intrinsic factors that affect decision making and quantitative data on product selection time were taken as an example of rich and real-time data obtained using the combined methods. Audiovisual material was analysed by Usability Test Software 2.0, verbal analysis data were sorted by a database programme and quantitative data were processed using SPSS 17.0. The study design provided sensitive verification of the nature of consumer interaction with the shopping environment: e.g. during the product selection time (average 23±10s/product), the interaction with the environment varied between individuals and among products selected. The approach represents a useful technique to enable the value of consumer input to direct innovation in consumer-oriented product development. It also offers new perspectives to consumers and authorities and related organizations to understand shopping behaviour and the role of critical factors behind the food choices at the supermarket. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source


Ngandu T.,Karolinska Institutet | Lehtisalo J.,Karolinska Institutet | Solomon A.,Karolinska Institutet | Solomon A.,Institute of Clinical Medicine Neurology | And 27 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2015

Background Modifiable vascular and lifestyle-related risk factors have been associated with dementia risk in observational studies. In the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER), a proof-of-concept randomised controlled trial, we aimed to assess a multidomain approach to prevent cognitive decline in at-risk elderly people from the general population. Methods In a double-blind randomised controlled trial we enrolled individuals aged 60-77 years recruited from previous national surveys. Inclusion criteria were CAIDE (Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Dementia) Dementia Risk Score of at least 6 points and cognition at mean level or slightly lower than expected for age. We randomly assigned participants in a 1:1 ratio to a 2 year multidomain intervention (diet, exercise, cognitive training, vascular risk monitoring), or a control group (general health advice). Computer-generated allocation was done in blocks of four (two individuals randomly allocated to each group) at each site. Group allocation was not actively disclosed to participants and outcome assessors were masked to group allocation. The primary outcome was change in cognition as measured through comprehensive neuropsychological test battery (NTB) Z score. Analysis was by modified intention to treat (all participants with at least one post-baseline observation). This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01041989. Findings Between Sept 7, 2009, and Nov 24, 2011, we screened 2654 individuals and randomly assigned 1260 to the intervention group (n=631) or control group (n=629). 591 (94%) participants in the intervention group and 599 (95%) in the control group had at least one post-baseline assessment and were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis. Estimated mean change in NTB total Z score at 2 years was 0·20 (SE 0·02, SD 0·51) in the intervention group and 0·16 (0·01, 0·51) in the control group. Between-group difference in the change of NTB total score per year was 0·022 (95% CI 0·002-0·042, p=0·030). 153 (12%) individuals dropped out overall. Adverse events occurred in 46 (7%) participants in the intervention group compared with six (1%) participants in the control group; the most common adverse event was musculoskeletal pain (32 [5%] individuals for intervention vs no individuals for control). Interpretation Findings from this large, long-term, randomised controlled trial suggest that a multidomain intervention could improve or maintain cognitive functioning in at-risk elderly people from the general population. Funding Academy of Finland, La Carita Foundation, Alzheimer Association, Alzheimer's Research and Prevention Foundation, Juho Vainio Foundation, Novo Nordisk Foundation, Finnish Social Insurance Institution, Ministry of Education and Culture, Salama bint Hamdan Al Nahyan Foundation, Axa Research Fund, EVO funding for University Hospitals of Kuopio, Oulu, and Turku and for Seinäjoki Central Hospital and Oulu City Hospital, Swedish Research Council, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, and af Jochnick Foundation. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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