Institute of Public Goods and Policies IPP CCHS

Madrid, Spain

Institute of Public Goods and Policies IPP CCHS

Madrid, Spain
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Azagra-Caro J.M.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Azagra-Caro J.M.,Karolinska Institutet | Mattsson P.,European Commission | Perruchas F.,Institute of Public Goods and Policies IPP CCHS
Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Patent citations added by examiners are often used as indicators of technological impact and knowledge flows, despite various criticisms. In this study we analyze the distribution of examiner patent citations according to patent characteristics in order to show their limitations. According to our findings, the number of applicant citations included is dependent on the science-base of the technology. However, this gets masked by the citations added by patent examiners, who smooth the distribution of citations across technology classes and include the same number of citations regardless of whether applicants cite any references. Some researchers have called for the use of applicant rather than examiner patent citations as indicators of technology impact and knowledge flows. Nevertheless, we show that the former also have important caveats, because applicants may increase the number of citations in international patents and when there are coapplicants. The implication is that analysts should consider a context-driven use of citation-based indicators. © 2011 ASIS&T.

Azagra-Caro J.M.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Azagra-Caro J.M.,European Commission | Azagra-Caro J.M.,Institute of Public Goods and Policies IPP CCHS
Scientometrics | Year: 2012

Access to public knowledge is a prerequisite for the good functioning of developed economies. Universities strive and are also requested to contribute to this knowledge both locally and internationally. Traditional studies on the geography of knowledge flows have identified a localisation effect; however, these studies do not use the country as the unit of observation and hence do not explore national patterns. In this paper, we hypothesise that the localisation of university knowledge flows is directly related to share of firm expenditure on research and development. To test this hypothesis, we use references to universities in patent documents as indicators based on a data set of around 20,000 university references, for 37 countries in the period 1990-2007, resulting in panels of around 300-500 observations. We build indicators for the university knowledge flows both inside and outside the applicant country, which we explain as a function of some proxies for national size and research structure based on econometric estimations. We draw some conclusions as to the importance of national business scientific strength for fostering increased domestic university knowledge flows. © 2012 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.

Jonkers K.,Institute of Public Goods and Policies IPP CCHS | Cruz-Castro L.,Institute of Public Goods and Policies IPP CCHS
Science and Public Policy | Year: 2010

This paper analyses the emergence of public sector international joint laboratories as an increasingly important new phenomenon in the internationalisation of public sector research. Using a survey and interview-based qualitative methodology, it explores the trends in the establishment of such laboratories, the aims for which they are established and the extent to which these aims are met. We find a considerable degree of organisational diversity among them in terms of size, structure, resources and legal status. Since the French Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and the German Max- Planck-Gesellschaft have been very active in setting up joint laboratories, the paper undertakes two case studies of the instruments of these organisations based on the background literature and in-depth interviews. We argue that their joint laboratories are examples of the institutionalisation of the dymanics of previously self-organised international collaborations and that they have developed these international collaborations to achieve specific organisational goals. © Beech Tree Publishing 2010.

Cruz-Castro L.,Institute of Public Goods and Policies IPP CCHS | Sanz-Menendez L.,Institute of Public Goods and Policies IPP CCHS
Research Policy | Year: 2010

Based on the data from survey responses and publications of 1583 academic scientists in Spain, this paper examines the relationship between scientific performance and reward, considering tenure and permanent positions as key academic rewards in early phases of academic career and focusing especially on the mediating effect of mobile versus stable career paths. Although widely practiced, inbreeding has often been considered to be at odds with universalism and merit in science. Our findings indicate that inbred faculty does not get tenure with less scientific merits than PhDs from other institutions; we also find that non-mobile careers are a strong predictor of the timing of rewards in the form of early permanent positions. Our results question the assumption mainly based on US evidence that mobility enhances career. These findings must be interpreted in the context of organizational and institutional features of the Spanish academic system that promote the development of internal academic research job markets. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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