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del Rio P.,Institute of Public Goods and Policies IPP | Labandeira X.,University of Vigo
Environmental Economics and Policy Studies | Year: 2014

Many economists propose the superiority of market-based instruments, and an increasing use of such measures in OECD countries has taken place. However, there has been (and still is) some reluctance by policymakers to use market-based instruments in climate policy. This article provides a theoretical framework to help explain this paradox. This framework combines standard environmental economics reasoning with two economic approaches: the institutional path dependence and the public choice perspectives, complemented with some insights from political science studies. Ex post empirical research using the Spanish case illustrates the accuracy and policy relevance of our approach. Analyzing the barriers to market-based measures in climate policy may allow us to draw lessons to facilitate the implementation of these instruments in the future. © 2009, Springer Japan. Source


Galvez C.,University of Granada | de Moya-Anegon F.,Institute of Public Goods and Policies IPP
Journal of Documentation | Year: 2012

Purpose: Gene term variation is a shortcoming in text-mining applications based on biomedical literature-based knowledge discovery. The purpose of this paper is to propose a technique for normalizing gene names in biomedical literature. Design/methodology/approach: Under this proposal, the normalized forms can be characterized as a unique gene symbol, defined as the official symbol or normalized name. The unification method involves five stages: collection of the gene term, using the resources provided by the Entrez Gene database; encoding of gene-naming terms in a table or binary matrix; design of a parametrized finite-state graph (P-FSG); automatic generation of a dictionary; and matching based on dictionary look-up to transform the gene mentions into the corresponding unified form. Findings: The findings show that the approach yields a high percentage of recall. Precision is only moderately high, basically due to ambiguity problems between gene-naming terms and words and abbreviations in general English. Research limitations/implications: The major limitation of this study is that biomedical abstracts were analyzed instead of full-text documents. The number of under-normalization and over-normalization errors is reduced considerably by limiting the realm of application to biomedical abstracts in a well-defined domain. Practical implications: The system can be used for practical tasks in biomedical literature mining. Normalized gene terms can be used as input to literature-based gene clustering algorithms, for identifying hidden gene-to-disease, gene-to-gene and gene-to-literature relationships. Originality/value: Few systems for gene term variation handling have been developed to date. The technique described performs gene name normalization by dictionary look-up. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Source


Goven J.,University of Canterbury | Pavone V.,Institute of Public Goods and Policies IPP
Science Technology and Human Values | Year: 2014

The bioeconomy is becoming increasingly prominent in policy and scholarly literature, but critical examination of the concept is lacking. We argue that the bioeconomy should be understood as a political project, not simply or primarily as a technoscientific or economic one. We use a conceptual framework derived from the work of Karl Polanyi to elucidate the politically performative nature of the bioeconomy through an analysis of an influential Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) initiative, The Bioeconomy to 2030. We argue that this initiative is a response to some of the most acute challenges facing the current neoliberal-capitalist accumulation regime, which seeks to protect and extend that regime, through both what it occludes and what it promotes. Rather than taking the bioeconomy as a description of some subset of economic activity, we regard it as a promissory construct that is meant to induce and facilitate some actions while deterring others; most explicitly, it is meant to bring about a particular set of political–institutional changes that will shape the parameters of possible future action. The bioeconomy concept highlights the potential dangers of failing to situate ethnographic examinations of horizontal micro-relations within a political–economic macro-context that enables and constrains. Scholarly work in science and technology studies and elsewhere that does not recognize the wider politics of the bioeconomy risks unintentionally contributing to the legitimation of this political project. © The Author(s) 2014 Source


Mir-Artigues P.,University of Lleida | Del Rio P.,Institute of Public Goods and Policies IPP
Energy Policy | Year: 2014

Policy combinations and interactions have received a considerable attention in the climate and energy policy realm. However, virtually no attention has been paid to the analysis of the combination of different deployment instruments for the same renewable energy technology. This neglect is all the more striking given the existence in current policy practice of combinations of deployment instruments either across technologies or for the same technology, both in the EU and elsewhere. What renewable electricity support policies to use and, therefore, how to combine them in order to promote the deployment of renewable energy technologies cost-effectively is a main concern of governments. The aim of this paper is to provide insight on the cost-effectiveness of combinations of deployment instruments for the same technology. A financial model is developed for this purpose, whereby feed-in tariffs (FITs) are combined with investment subsidies and soft loans. The results show that the policy costs of combinations are the same as for the FITs-only option. Therefore, combining deployment instruments is not a cost-containment strategy. However, combinations may lead to different inter-temporal distributions of the same amount of policy costs and, thus, differently affect the social acceptability and political feasibility of renewable energy support. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Huntsinger L.,University of California at Berkeley | Oviedo J.L.,Institute of Public Goods and Policies IPP
Ecology and Society | Year: 2014

When attempting to value ecosystem services and support their production, two critical aspects may be neglected. The term "ecosystem services" implies that they are a function of natural processes; yet, human interaction with the environment may be key to the production of many. This can contribute to a misconception that ecosystem service production depends on, or is enhanced by, the coercion or removal of human industry. Second, in programs designed to encourage ecosystem service production and maintenance, too often the inter-relationship of such services with social and ecological processes and drivers at multiple scales is ignored. Thinking of such services as "social-ecological services" can reinforce the importance of human culture, perspectives, and economies to the production of ecosystem services. Using a social-ecological systems perspective, we explore the integral role of human activity and decisions at pasture, ranch, and landscape scales. Just as it does for understanding ecosystems, a hierarchical, multiscaled framework facilitates exploring the complexity of social-ecological systems as producers of ecosystem services, to develop approaches for the conservation of such services. Using California's Mediterranean rangelands as a study area, we suggest that using a multiscaled approach that considers the importance of the differing drivers and processes at each scale and the interactions among scales, and that incorporates social-ecological systems concepts, may help avoid mistakes caused by narrow assumptions about "natural" systems, and a lack of understanding of the need for integrated, multiscaled conservation programs. © 2014 by the author(s). Source

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