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Ortega J.L.,Vice presidency for Scientific and Technological Research | Orduna-Malea E.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Aguillo I.F.,Institute of Public Goods and Policies
Online Information Review | Year: 2014

Purpose - Title and URL mentions have recently been proposed as web visibility indicators instead of inlink counts. The objective of this study is to determine the accuracy of these alternative web mention indicators in the Spanish academic system, taking into account their complexity (multi-domains) and diversity (different official languages). Design/methodology/approach - Inlinks, title and URL mentions from 76 Spanish universities were manually extracted from the main search engines (Google, Google Scholar, Yahoo!, Bing and Exalead). Several statistical methods, such as correlation, difference tests and regression models, were used. Findings - Web mentions, despite some limitations, can be used as substitutes for inlinks in the Spanish academic system, although these indicators are more likely to be influenced by the environment (language, web domain policy, etc.) than inlinks. Research limitations/implications - Title mentions provide unstable results caused by the multiple name variants which an institution can present (such as acronyms and other language versions). URL mentions are more stable, but they may present atypical points due to some shortcomings, the effect of which is that URL mentions do not have the same meaning as inlinks. Practical implications - Web mentions should be used with caution and after a cleaning-up process. Moreover, these counts do not necessarily signify connectivity, so their use in global web analysis should be limited. Originality/value - Web mentions have previously been used in some specific academic systems (US, UK and China), but this study analyses, in depth and for the first time, an entire non-English speaking European country (Spain), with complex academic web behaviour, which helps to better explain previous web mention results. Copyright © 2014 Emerald Group Publishing Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Holl A.,Institute of Public Goods and Policies | Rama R.,Institute of Economics
Science and Public Policy | Year: 2012

In this paper, we study the pattern of technology sourcing, taking into account where firms source technology and through which channels. We specifically, inquire whether biotechnology firms are different from other firms in their technology sourcing behaviour. Our results show some significant differences in the patterns of technology sourcing. Biotechnology firms show a greater propensity for external technology sourcing, both with regard to the external purchasing of R&D services and with regard to cooperation for innovation. They also show a greater propensity to purchase foreign R&D, but they are not more likely to establish foreign cooperation for innovation once their firm-specific and industry characteristics, as well as sample selection bias, have been taken into account. However, biotechnology firms do show a more varied pattern of sourcing, in both the types of agents used and the geographic origin of the technology. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Source

Hassenteufel P.,University of Versailles | Smyrl M.,Montpellier University | Genieys W.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Moreno-Fuentes F.J.,Institute of Public Goods and Policies
Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law | Year: 2010

In France, Germany, Spain, and the United Kingdom, the decades from the late 1980s to the present have witnessed significant change in health policy. Although this has included the spread of internal competition and growing autonomy for certain nonstate and parastate actors, it does not follow that the mechanism at work is a "neoliberal convergence." Rather, the translation into diverse national settings of quasi-market mechanisms is accompanied by a reassertion of regulatory authority and strengthening of statist, as opposed to corporatist, management of national insurance systems. Thus the use of quasi-market tools brings state-strengthening reform. The proximate and necessary cause of this dual transformation is found in the work of small, closely integrated groups of policy professionals, whom we label "programmatic actors." While their identity differs across cases, these actors are strikingly similar in functional role and motivation. Motivated by a desire to wield authority through the promotion of programmatic ideas, rather than by material or careerist interests, these elite groups act both as importers and translators of ideas and as architects of policy. The resulting elite-driven model of policy change integrates ideational and institutionalist elements to explain programmatically coherent change despite institutional resistance and partisan instability. © 2010 by Duke University Press. Source

Paniagua A.,Institute of Public Goods and Policies
Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change | Year: 2013

There is a wide range of individual or collective interpretations of the conceptualisation of rurality. Rural tourism (RT) is a key component in the politics of rural spaces in Europe and, consequently, is clearly associated with the debate about rurality in each country. In addition to RT, this paper studies the framework of commoditisation, associated with its distinct character in each situation, depending on the actors involved in each process, policy or manifestation. It also discusses the role of tourism in generating different notions of rurality among the Spanish regional authorities. The information source used here consists in the critical analysis of national and regional regulations and the policy documents on RT since 1960. The paper finally concludes that RT is an important factor in the generation of different perspectives of rurality in Spain, which corresponds to its main role, rather than its socioeconomic effects, which have been limited to counteracting the effects of the rural exodus. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Bleda M.,University of Manchester | Del Rio P.,Institute of Public Goods and Policies
Research Policy | Year: 2013

In this paper we analyse the conceptual relationship between the market failure rationale and the systemic failure rationale as justifications for policy intervention within an innovation systems (IS) analytical framework. Current policy analyses in the IS literature are characterised by two contrasting theoretical positions regarding the way in which both rationales are conceptually interrelated. In one strand of the literature, the market failure rationale is considered as a valid although insufficient justification for policy intervention that therefore needs to be complemented by the arguments put forward by the systemic failure rationale. This perspective implicitly presents the systemic failure framework as a more general approach than the market failure perspective. On the other hand, a number of IS policy contributions explicitly reject the market failure approach and consider it a flawed argument for government intervention. In this theoretical view, the systemic failure approach is thus proposed as a more appropriate, alternative innovation policy rationale. Despite their relevance as the theoretical bases that currently underpin actual innovation policy design, an analysis of the robustness and conceptual coherence of these contrasting perspectives has not been provided so far. In this work, we set the analytical steps we deem required for this analysis, and investigate under which premises the relationship between the market failure and the system failure rationales proposed by these two policy perspectives is valid from a theoretical point of view. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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