Institute of Psychiatric Research

Union City, IN, United States

Institute of Psychiatric Research

Union City, IN, United States
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Lungwitz E.A.,Graduate Program in Medical Neuroscience | Lungwitz E.A.,Stark Neurosciences Research Institute | Molosh A.,Stark Neurosciences Research Institute | Molosh A.,Institute of Psychiatric Research | And 8 more authors.
Physiology and Behavior | Year: 2012

The hypothalamic neuropeptide orexin (ORX) has been implicated in anxiety, and anxiety-like behaviors. The purpose of these studies was to determine the role of ORX, specifically orexin-A (ORX-A) in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) on anxiety-like behaviors in rats. Rats injected with ORX-A into the BNST displayed greater anxiety-like measures in the social interaction and elevated plus maze tests compared to vehicle treated controls. Such anxiety-like behaviors were not observed when the ORX-A injections were adjacent to the BNST, in the medial septum. The anxiety-inducing effects of direct infusions of ORX-A into the BNST may be a consequence of increased activation of BNST neurons. In BNST slice preparations using patch-clamp techniques, ORX-A induced membrane depolarization and generation of action potentials in a subset of BNST neurons. The anxiety-inducing effects of ORX-A in the BNST also appear to be dependent on NMDA-type glutamate receptor activity, as pre-injecting the NMDA antagonist AP5 into the BNST blocked anxiogenic effects of local ORX-A injections. Injections of AMPA-type receptor antagonists into the BNST prior to ORX-A resulted in only a partial attenuation of anxiety-like behaviors. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

PubMed | Institute of Psychiatric Research, Aberdeen Group and University of the Basque Country
Type: | Journal: Acta tropica | Year: 2015

Metronidazole is frequently used against Giardia infection; however, it has been associated with significant failure rates in clearing parasites from the gut; additionally, as it should be taken for 5 to 10 days, it is associated with poor compliance, probably due to side effects. Other drugs, including tinidazole (TNZ) and albendazole (ABZ) have been included in the antigiardial armamentarium. Our aim was to assess the efficacy of ABZ compared with TNZ in Giardia infections in children. A systematic review and a meta-analysis were carried out. PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and LILACS were searched electronically until February 2015. Also relevant journals and references of studies included therein were hand-searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The meta-analysis was limited to RCTs evaluating the use of ABZ compared with TNZ in children with Giardia infection. The assessed outcome was parasitological efficacy. Prediction intervals (PI) were computed to better express uncertainties in the effect estimates. Five RCTs including 403 children were included. Overall, TNZ significantly outperformed ABZ without differences between subgroups defined by ABZ dosages [relative risk, (RR) 1.61 (95% CI): (1.40-1.85); P<0.0001]. The 95% prediction interval range is 1.28-2.02. There was no significant heterogeneity (I(2)=0%; Q-test of heterogeneity P=0.4507. The number-needed-to-treat, the average number of patients who need to be treated with TNZ to gain one additional good outcome as compared with ABZ was 4, 95% CI: 3-5. Our results show that TNZ outperforms ABZ in the treatment of Giardia infections in children from developing countries.

PubMed | University of the Basque Country, Aita Menni Hospital, CIBER ISCIII, Institute of Psychiatric Research and 3 more.
Type: | Journal: European psychiatry : the journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists | Year: 2016

Patients relatives usually care for patients with schizophrenia, and as informal caregivers they experience negative consequences. The aim of the EDUCA-III trial is to test the efficacy of a psychoeducational intervention program (PIP) versus standard care to reduce the caregiver burden at post-intervention (4 months), and at follow-up (8 months).A two-arm, evaluator blind, multicentre, randomized controlled trial. The PIP group had 12 weekly group sessions. The control intervention group had the usual support and standard care. Primary outcomes were change scores since baseline on the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI) and the Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire (IEQ).One hundred and nine caregivers were randomized to PIP and 114 to control condition from 23 research sites. The decrease of ZBI scores was significantly higher on the PIP arm at 4 months (mean difference [MD]=-4.33; 95% CI -7.96, -0.71), and at 8 months (MD=-4.46; 95% CI -7.79, -1.13). There were no significant decreases in the IEQ scores (MD at 4 months=-2.80; 95% CI -6.27, 0.67; MD at 8 months=-2.85; 95% CI -6.51, 0.81).The PIP condition seems to reduce caregiver burden.ISRCTN32545295.

Kalsi G.,Virginia Commonwealth University | Kuo P.-H.,National Taiwan University | Aliev F.,Virginia Commonwealth University | Aliev F.,Ankara University | And 14 more authors.
Human Molecular Genetics | Year: 2010

Studies of alcohol dependence (AD) have consistently found evidence of linkage on chromosome 4q21-q32. A genome-wide linkage scan in the Irish Affected Sib Pair Study of Alcohol Dependence (IASPSAD) sample also provided its strongest evidence of linkage on chromosome 4q22-q32 using an index of AD severity based on the count of DSM-IV AD symptoms (ADSX; LOD 5 4.59). We conducted a systematic, gene-centric association study using 518 LD-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 65 known and predicted genes within the 1-LOD interval surrounding the linkage peak. Case-only regression analysis with the quantitative variable of ADSX was performed in the 562 genetically independent cases; nominal support for association was demonstrated by 32 tagging SNPs in 14 genes. We did not observe study-wide significance, but gene-wise correction for multiple testing with the Nyholt procedure yielded empirical evidence of association with two genes, DKK2 (dickkopf homolog 2) (P 5 0.007) and EGF (epidermal growth factor) (P 5 0.025) in the IASPSAD sample. Three SNPs in DKK2 (rs427983; rs419558; rs399087) demonstrated empirical significance. Assessment of possible replication in 847 cases of European descent from a large independent sample, the Collaborative Study of the Genetics of Alcoholism, yielded replication for DKK2 but not EGF. We observed genotypic and phenotypic replication for DKK2 with the three SNPs yielding significant association with ADSX in the IASPSAD sample. Haplotype-specific expression measurements in post-mortem tissue samples suggested a functional role for DKK2. This evidence notwithstanding, replication is needed before confidence can be placed in these findings. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

Ayalew M.,Indiana University | Ayalew M.,Institute of Psychiatric Research | Le-Niculescu H.,Indiana University | Levey D.F.,Indiana University | And 18 more authors.
Molecular Psychiatry | Year: 2012

We have used a translational convergent functional genomics (CFG) approach to identify and prioritize genes involved in schizophrenia, by gene-level integration of genome-wide association study data with other genetic and gene expression studies in humans and animal models. Using this polyevidence scoring and pathway analyses, we identify top genes (DISC1, TCF4, MBP, MOBP, NCAM1, NRCAM, NDUFV2, RAB18, as well as ADCYAP1, BDNF, CNR1, COMT, DRD2, DTNBP1, GAD1, GRIA1, GRIN2B, HTR2A, NRG1, RELN, SNAP-25, TNIK), brain development, myelination, cell adhesion, glutamate receptor signaling, G-protein-coupled receptor signaling and cAMP-mediated signaling as key to pathophysiology and as targets for therapeutic intervention. Overall, the data are consistent with a model of disrupted connectivity in schizophrenia, resulting from the effects of neurodevelopmental environmental stress on a background of genetic vulnerability. In addition, we show how the top candidate genes identified by CFG can be used to generate a genetic risk prediction score (GRPS) to aid schizophrenia diagnostics, with predictive ability in independent cohorts. The GRPS also differentiates classic age of onset schizophrenia from early onset and late-onset disease. We also show, in three independent cohorts, two European American and one African American, increasing overlap, reproducibility and consistency of findings from single-nucleotide polymorphisms to genes, then genes prioritized by CFG, and ultimately at the level of biological pathways and mechanisms. Finally, we compared our top candidate genes for schizophrenia from this analysis with top candidate genes for bipolar disorder and anxiety disorders from previous CFG analyses conducted by us, as well as findings from the fields of autism and Alzheimer. Overall, our work maps the genomic and biological landscape for schizophrenia, providing leads towards a better understanding of illness, diagnostics and therapeutics. It also reveals the significant genetic overlap with other major psychiatric disorder domains, suggesting the need for improved nosology. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Rodd Z.A.,Institute of Psychiatric Research | Bell R.L.,Institute of Psychiatric Research | Oster S.M.,Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis | Toalston J.E.,Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis | And 5 more authors.
Alcohol | Year: 2010

Several studies indicated the involvement of serotonin-3 ([5-hydroxy tryptamine] 5-HT 3) receptors in regulating alcohol-drinking behavior. The objective of this study was to determine the involvement of 5-HT 3 receptors within the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in regulating ethanol self-administration by alcohol-preferring (P) rats. Standard two-lever operant chambers (Coulbourn Instruments, Allentown, PA) were used to examine the effects of seven consecutive bilateral microinfusions of ICS 205-930 (ICS), a 5-HT 3 receptor antagonist, directly into the posterior VTA on the acquisition and maintenance of 15% (vol/vol) ethanol self-administration. P rats readily acquired ethanol self-administration by the fourth session. The three highest doses (0.125, 0.25, and 1.25μg) of ICS prevented acquisition of ethanol self-administration. During the acquisition postinjection period, all rats treated with ICS demonstrated higher responding on the ethanol lever, with the highest dose producing the greatest effect. In contrast, during the maintenance phase, the three highest doses (0.75, 1.0, and 1.25μg) of ICS significantly increased responding on the ethanol lever; after the 7-day dosing regimen, responding on the ethanol lever returned to control levels. Microinfusion of ICS into the posterior VTA did not alter the low responding on the water lever and did not alter saccharin (0.0125% wt/v) self-administration. Microinfusion of ICS into the anterior VTA did not alter ethanol self-administration. Overall, the results of this study suggest that 5-HT 3 receptors in the posterior VTA of the P rat may be involved in regulating ethanol self-administration. In addition, chronic operant ethanol self-administration and/or repeated treatments with a 5-HT 3 receptor antagonist may alter neuronal circuitry within the posterior VTA. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Long J.M.,Institute of Psychiatric Research | Ray B.,Institute of Psychiatric Research | Lahiri D.K.,Institute of Psychiatric Research | Lahiri D.K.,Indiana University
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2014

Background: BACE1 is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of Aβ from amyloid precursor protein. Results: Human miR-339-5p negatively regulates BACE1 and Aβ in human brain cultures and is reduced in AD specimens. Conclusion: Human miR-339-5p physiologically regulates human BACE1 protein expression and Aβ and is dysregulated in the AD brain. Significance: miR-339-5p represents a novel drug target in AD. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

Lahiri D.K.,Institute of Psychiatric Research | Lahiri D.K.,Indiana University | Maloney B.,Institute of Psychiatric Research
Experimental Gerontology | Year: 2010

The neurodegenerative disorder Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the 6th leading cause of death in the USA. In addition to neurological and psychiatric symptoms, AD is characterized by deficiencies in S-adenylmethionine (SAM), vitamin B12, and folate. Deficiency in these nutrients has been shown to result in gene promoter methylation with upregulation of AD-associated genes. While some cases of AD are due to specific mutations in genes such as presenilin 1 (PSEN) and the amyloid-β peptide precursor protein (APP), these familial AD (FAD) cases account for a minority of cases. The majority of genetic contribution consists of risk factors with incomplete penetrance. Several environmental risk factors, such as cholesterol and diet, head trauma, and reduced levels of exercise, have also been determined for AD. Nevertheless, the majority of risk for AD appears to be established early in life. We propose to explain this via the LEARn (Latent Early-life Associated Regulation) model. LEARn-AD (LAD) would be a "two-hit" disorder, wherein the first hit would occur due to environmental stress within the regulatory sequences of AD-associated genes, maintained by epigenetic changes such as in DNA methylation. This hit would most likely come in early childhood. The second hit could consist of further stress, such as head trauma, poor mid-life diet, or even general changes in expression of genes that occur later in life independent of any pathogenesis. Given that the primary risk for LAD would be maintained by DNA (hypo)methylation, we propose that long-term nutritional remediation based on the LEARn model, or LEARn-based nutritional gain (LEARnING), beginning early in life, would significantly reduce risk for AD late in life. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Alzheimer disease (AD) results, in part, from the excess accumulation of the amyloid- (A) peptide as neuritic plaques in the brain. The short A peptide is derived from the large transmembrane A precursor protein (APP). The rate-limiting step in the production of A from APP is mediated by the -site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1). Dysregulation of BACE1 levels leading to excess A deposition is implicated in sporadic AD. Thus, elucidating the full complement of regulatory pathways that control BACE1 expression is key to identifying novel drug targets central to the A-generating process. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are expected to participate in this molecular network. Here, we identified a known miRNA, miR-339-5p, as a key contributor to this regulatory network. Two distinct miR-339-5p target sites were predicted in the BACE1 3-UTR by in silico analyses. Co-transfection of miR-339-5p with a BACE1 3-UTR reporter construct resulted in significant reduction in reporter expression. Mutation of both target sites eliminated this effect. Delivery of the miR-339-5p mimic also significantly inhibited expression of BACE1 protein in human glioblastoma cells and human primary brain cultures. Delivery of target protectors designed against the miR-339-5p BACE1 3-UTR target sites in primary human brain cultures significantly elevated BACE1 expression. Finally, miR-339-5p levels were found to be significantly reduced in brain specimens isolated from AD patients as compared with age-matched controls. Therefore, miR-339-5p regulates BACE1 expression in human brain cells and is most likely dysregulated in at least a subset of AD patients making this miRNA a novel drug target.

PubMed | Institute of Psychiatric Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Developmental neuroscience | Year: 2016

Methamphetamine (MAP) addiction is substantially prevalent in todays society, resulting in thousands of deaths and costing billions of dollars annually. Despite the potential deleterious consequences, few studies have examined the long-term effects of embryonic MAP exposure. Using the invertebrate nematode Caenorhabditis elegans allows for a controlled analysis of behavioral and neurochemical changes due to early developmental drug exposure. The objective of the current study was to determine the long-term behavioral and neurochemical effects of embryonic exposure to MAP in C. elegans. In addition, we sought to improve our conditioning and testing procedures by utilizing liquid filtration, as opposed to agar, and smaller, 6-well testing plates to increase throughput. Wild-type N2 C. elegans were embryonically exposed to 50 M MAP. Using classical conditioning, adult-stage C. elegans were conditioned to MAP (17 and 500 M) in the presence of either sodium ions (Na+) or chloride ions (Cl-) as conditioned stimuli (CS+/CS-). Following conditioning, a preference test was performed by placing worms in 6-well test plates spotted with the CS+ and CS- at opposite ends of each well. A preference index was determined by counting the number of worms in the CS+ target zone divided by the total number of worms in the CS+ and CS- target zones. A food conditioning experiment was also performed in order to determine whether embryonic MAP exposure affected food conditioning behavior. For the neurochemical experiments, adult worms that were embryonically exposed to MAP were analyzed for dopamine (DA) content using high-performance liquid chromatography. The liquid filtration conditioning procedure employed here in combination with the use of 6-well test plates significantly decreased the time required to perform these experiments and ultimately increased throughput. The MAP conditioning data found that pairing an ion with MAP at 17 or 500 M significantly increased the preference for that ion (CS+) in worms that were not pre-exposed to MAP. However, worms embryonically exposed to MAP did not exhibit significant drug cue conditioning. The inability of MAP-exposed worms to condition to MAP was not associated with deficits in food conditioning, as MAP-exposed worms exhibited a significant cue preference associated with food. Furthermore, our results found that embryonic MAP exposure reduced DA levels in adult C. elegans, which could be a key mechanism contributing to the long-term effects of embryonic MAP exposure. It is possible that embryonic MAP exposure may be impairing the ability of C. elegans to learn associations between MAP and the CS+ or inhibiting the reinforcing properties of MAP. However, our food conditioning data suggest that MAP-exposed animals can form associations between cues and food. The depletion of DA levels during embryonic exposure to MAP could be responsible for driving either of these processes during adulthood.

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