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Bindels L.B.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Segura Munoz R.R.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Gomes-Neto J.C.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Mutemberezi V.,Catholic University of Louvain | And 10 more authors.
Microbiome | Year: 2017

Background: Obesity-related diseases, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, have reached epidemic proportions in industrialized nations, and dietary interventions for their prevention are therefore important. Resistant starches (RS) improve insulin sensitivity in clinical trials, but the mechanisms underlying this health benefit remain poorly understood. Because RS fermentation by the gut microbiota results in the formation of physiologically active metabolites, we chose to specifically determine the role of the gut microbiota in mediating the metabolic benefits of RS. To achieve this goal, we determined the effects of RS when added to a Western diet on host metabolism in mice with and without a microbiota. Results: RS feeding of conventionalized mice improved insulin sensitivity and redressed some of the Western diet-induced changes in microbiome composition. However, parallel experiments in germ-free littermates revealed that RS-mediated improvements in insulin levels also occurred in the absence of a microbiota. RS reduced gene expression of adipose tissue macrophage markers and altered cecal concentrations of several bile acids in both germ-free and conventionalized mice; these effects were strongly correlated with the metabolic benefits, providing a potential microbiota-independent mechanism to explain the physiological effects of RS. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that some metabolic benefits exerted by dietary RS, especially improvements in insulin levels, occur independently of the microbiota and could involve alterations in the bile acid cycle and adipose tissue immune modulation. This work also sets a precedent for future mechanistic studies aimed at establishing the causative role of the gut microbiota in mediating the benefits of bioactive compounds and functional foods. © The Author(s) 2017.


Gonzalez-Rodriguez I.,Institute Of Productos Lacteos Of Asturias Consejo Superior Of Investigaciones Cientificas Ipla Csic | Ruiz L.,Institute Of Productos Lacteos Of Asturias Consejo Superior Of Investigaciones Cientificas Ipla Csic | Ruiz L.,University College Cork | Gueimonde M.,Institute Of Productos Lacteos Of Asturias Consejo Superior Of Investigaciones Cientificas Ipla Csic | And 2 more authors.
FEMS Microbiology Letters | Year: 2013

Probiotics are live microorganisms that when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. They are mainly bacteria from the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. Traditionally, functional properties of lactobacilli have been studied in more detail than those of bifidobacteria. However, many recent studies have clearly revealed that the bifidobacterial population in the human gut is far more abundant than the population of lactobacilli. Although the 'beneficial gut microbiota' still remains to be elucidated, it is generally believed that the presence of bifidobacteria is associated with a healthy status of the host, and scientific evidence supports the benefits attributed to specific Bifidobacterium strains. To carry out their functional activities, bifidobacteria must be able to survive the gastrointestinal tract transit and persist, at least transiently, in the host. This is achieved using stress response mechanisms and adhesion and colonization factors, as well as by taking advantage of specific energy recruitment pathways. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the mechanisms involved in facilitating the establishment, colonization, and survival of bifidobacteria in the human gut. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies.


Nikolic M.,Institute Of Productos Lacteos Of Asturias Consejo Superior Of Investigaciones Cientificas Ipla Csic | Nikolic M.,University of Belgrade | Lopez P.,Institute Of Productos Lacteos Of Asturias Consejo Superior Of Investigaciones Cientificas Ipla Csic | Lopez P.,University of Oviedo | And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2012

Traditional fermented foods are the best source for the isolation of strains with specific traits to act as functional starters and to keep the biodiversity of the culture collections. Besides, these strains could be used in the formulation of foods claimed to promote health benefits, i.e. those containing probiotic microorganisms. For the rational selection of strains acting as probiotics, several in vitro tests have been proposed. In the current study, we have characterized the probiotic potential of the strain Lactobacillus paraplantarum BGCG11, isolated from a Serbian soft, white, homemade cheese, which is able to produce a "ropy" exopolysaccharide (EPS). Three novobiocin derivative strains, which have lost the ropy phenotype, were characterized as well in order to determine the putative role of the EPS in the probiotic potential. Under chemically gastrointestinal conditions, all strains were able to survive around 1-2% (106-107cfu/ml cultivable bacteria) only when they were included in a food matrix (1% skimmed milk). The strains were more resistant to acid conditions than to bile salts and gastric or pancreatic enzymes, which could be due to a pre-adaptation of the parental strain to acidic conditions in the cheese habitat. The ropy EPS did not improve the survival of the producing strain. On the contrary, the presence of an EPS layer surrounding the strain BGCG11 hindered its adhesion to the three epithelial intestinal cell lines tested, since the adhesion of the three non-ropy derivatives was higher than the parental one and also than that of the reference strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Aiming to propose a potential target application of these strains as probiotics, the cytokine production of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was analyzed. The EPS-producing L. paraplantarum BGCG11 strain showed an anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressor profile whereas the non-ropy derivative strains induced higher pro-inflammatory response. In addition, when PBMC were stimulated with increasing concentrations of the purified ropy EPS (1, 10 and 100μg/ml) the cytokine profile was similar to that obtained with the EPS-producing lactobacilli, therefore pointing to a putative role of this biopolymer in its immune response. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Hidalgo-Cantabrana C.,Institute Of Productos Lacteos Of Asturias Consejo Superior Of Investigaciones Cientificas Ipla Csic | Lopez P.,Institute Of Productos Lacteos Of Asturias Consejo Superior Of Investigaciones Cientificas Ipla Csic | Lopez P.,University of Oviedo | Gueimonde M.,Institute Of Productos Lacteos Of Asturias Consejo Superior Of Investigaciones Cientificas Ipla Csic | And 4 more authors.
Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins | Year: 2012

During recent years, the exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by some strains of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria have attracted the attention of researchers, mainly due to their potential technological applications. However, more recently, it has been observed that some of these EPS present immunomodulatory properties, which suggest a potential effect on human health. Whereas EPS from lactic acid bacteria have been studied in some detail, those of bifidobacteria largely remain uncharacterized in spite of the ubiquity of EPS genes in Bifidobacterium genomes. In this review, we have analysed the data collected in the literature about the potential immune-modulating capability of EPS produced by lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria. From this data analysis, as well as from results obtained in our group, a hypothesis relating the physicochemical characteristics of EPS with their immune modulation capability was highlighted. We propose that EPS having negative charge and/or small size (molecular weight) are able to act as mild stimulators of immune cells, whereas those polymers non-charged and with a large size present a suppressive profile. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Ruiz L.,Institute Of Productos Lacteos Of Asturias Consejo Superior Of Investigaciones Cientificas Ipla Csic | Gueimonde M.,Institute Of Productos Lacteos Of Asturias Consejo Superior Of Investigaciones Cientificas Ipla Csic | Patricia R.-M.,Institute Of Productos Lacteos Of Asturias Consejo Superior Of Investigaciones Cientificas Ipla Csic | Ribbera A.,Institute Of Productos Lacteos Of Asturias Consejo Superior Of Investigaciones Cientificas Ipla Csic | And 5 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2012

Oxygen is one of the abiotic factors negatively affecting the survival of Bifidobacterium strains used as probiotics, mainly due to the induction of lethal oxidative damage. Aerobic conditions are present during the process of manufacture and storage of functional foods, and aerotolerance is a desired trait for bifidobacteria intended for use in industry. In the present study, the molecular response of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis IPLA4549 to aerobic conditions is presented. Molecular targets affected by oxygen were studied using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) and quantitative reverse transcriptase (qRT) PCR. Globally, oxygen stress induced a shift in the glycolytic pathway toward the production of acetic acid with a concomitant increase in ATP formation. Several changes in the expression of genes coding for enzymes involved in redox reactions were detected, although the redox ratio remained unaltered. Interestingly, cells grown under aerobic conditions were characterized by higher activity of coproporphyrinogen III oxidase, which can directly detoxify molecular oxygen, and by higher NADH oxidase specific activity, which can oxidize NADH using hydrogen peroxide. In turn, this is in agreement with the glycolytic shift toward acetate production, in that more NADH molecules may be available due to the lower level of lactic acid formation. These findings further our ability to elucidate the mechanisms by which B. animalis copes with an oxygen-containing atmosphere. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology.

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