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Venkatachalam M.,Institute of Veterinary Preventive Medicine | Govindaraju K.,Sathyabama University | Tamilselvan S.,Thiruvalluvar University | Ganesh Kumar V.,Sathyabama University | Singaravelu G.,Thiruvalluvar University
Spectrochimica Acta - Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy | Year: 2013

In the present investigation, functionalization of gold nanoparticles synthesized using propanoic acid 2-(3-acetoxy-4,4,14-trimethylandrost-8-en-17- yl) (PAT) an active biocomponent isolated from Cassia auriculata is studied in detail. On reaction of PAT with aqueous HAuCl4, rapid formation of stable gold nanoparticles was achieved. Formation of gold nanoparticles was confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopy, XRD, GC-MS, FTIR, TEM and SEM with EDAX. Gold nanoparticles mostly were monodisperse, spherical in shape and ranged in size 12-41 nm. Gold nanoparticles synthesised using PAT was administered to alloxan (150 mg/kg body weight) induced diabetic male albino rats at different doses (0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 mg/kg body weight) for 28 days. Plasma glucose level, cholesterol and triglyceride were significantly (p < 0.001) reduced in experimental animals treated with gold nanoparticles at dosage of 0.5 mg/kg body weight and plasma insulin increased significantly. The newly genre green gold nanoparticles exhibit remarkable protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitory activity. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Ganapathi P.,Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | Ganapathi P.,Institute of Veterinary Preventive Medicine | Rajendran R.,Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | Kathiravan P.,International Atomic Energy Agency
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2012

The effective number of breedable individuals is a crucial determinant for maintaining genetic variability within a population. The population of Bargur, the hill cattle of South India, has gone down drastically by more than 93 % in the past three decades, and only a few thousand animals are available at present. The present study was undertaken to evaluate Bargur cattle for mutation drift equilibrium and to detect the occurrence of recent genetic bottleneck event, if any, in this population. About 50 unrelated animals, true to the type, were sampled and genotyped at 25 microsatellite loci. The mean observed heterozygosity (0.808 ± 0.023) was higher than the mean expected heterozygosity (0.762 ± 0.008) with 15 out of 25 microsatellite loci exhibiting heterozygosity excess when assumed under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. To evaluate Bargur cattle for mutation drift equilibrium, three tests were performed under three different mutation models, viz., infinite allele model (IAM), stepwise mutation model (SMM) and two-phase model (TPM). The observed gene diversity (He) and expected equilibrium gene diversity (Heq) were estimated under different models of microsatellite evolution. All the 25 loci were found to exhibit gene diversity excess under IAM and TPM, while 22 loci were having gene diversity excess under SMM. All the three statistical tests, viz., sign test, standardized differences test, and Wilcoxon sign rank test, revealed significant (P < 0.01) deviation of Bargur cattle population from mutation-drift equilibrium under all the three models of mutation. Furthermore, the qualitative test of allele frequency distribution in Bargur cattle population revealed a strong mode shift from the normal L-shaped form suggesting that the population had experienced genetic bottleneck in the recent past. The occurrence of genetic bottleneck might have led to the loss of several rare alleles in the population, which point towards the need for efforts to conserve this important cattle germplasm. The present study is the first report in demonstrating the genetic basis of demographic bottleneck in an Indian cattle population. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

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