Institute of Predictive and Personalized Medicine of Cancer Barcelona

Medicine of, Spain

Institute of Predictive and Personalized Medicine of Cancer Barcelona

Medicine of, Spain
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PubMed | Institute of Predictive and Personalized Medicine of Cancer Barcelona
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in genetics | Year: 2014

Sperm is a highly differentiated cell type whose function is to deliver a haploid genome to the oocyte. The sperm epigenomes were traditionally considered to be insignificant - the sperm is transcriptionally inactive, its genome is packaged in sperm-specific protamine toroids instead of nucleosomes, and its DNA methylation profile is erased immediately post-fertilization. Yet, in recent years there has been an increase in the number of reported cases of apparent epigenetic inheritance through the male germline, suggesting that the sperm epigenome may transmit information between generations. At the same time, technical advances have made the genome-wide profiling of different layers of the sperm epigenome feasible. As a result, a large number of datasets have been recently generated and analyzed with the aim to better understand what non-genetic material is contained within the sperm and whether it has any function post-fertilization. Here, we provide an overview of the current knowledge of the sperm epigenomes as well as the challenges in analysing them and the opportunities in understanding the potential non-genetic carriers of information in sperm.


PubMed | Institute of Predictive and Personalized Medicine of Cancer Barcelona
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in aging neuroscience | Year: 2015

Regenerative capacity of skeletal muscles resides in satellite cells, a self-renewing population of muscle cells. Several studies are investigating epigenetic mechanisms that control myogenic proliferation and differentiation to find new approaches that could boost regeneration of endogenous myogenic progenitor populations. In recent years, a lot of effort has been applied to purify, expand and manipulate adult stem cells from muscle tissue. However, this population of endogenous myogenic progenitors in adults is limited and their access is difficult and invasive. Therefore, other sources of stem cells with potential to regenerate muscles need to be examined. An excellent candidate could be a population of adult stromal cells within fat characterized by mesenchymal properties, which have been termed adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). These progenitor adult stem cells have been successfully differentiated in vitro to osteogenic, chondrogenic, neurogenic and myogenic lineages. Autologous ASCs are multipotent and can be harvested with low morbidity; thus, they hold promise for a range of therapeutic applications. This review will summarize the use of ASCs in muscle regenerative approaches.

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