Institute of Power Engineering and Turbomachinery of Poland

Gliwice, Poland

Institute of Power Engineering and Turbomachinery of Poland

Gliwice, Poland

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Kotowicz J.,Warsaw University of Technology | Janusz-Szymanska K.,Institute of Power Engineering and Turbomachinery of Poland
Rynek Energii | Year: 2011

In this paper the influence of CO2 separation system on the efficiency of a coal power plant was presented. For the analysis the pulverized coal power plant with the electric power rating at 460 MW, parameters of live steam 27.8 MPa/ 580°C and the temperature of reheated steam equal 600°C was selected. This power plant achieves a net efficiency equal to 41.43% (according to LHV). Two cases were analyzed. First, using oxy combustion technology in which oxygen is supplied from cryogenic air separation unit (ASU) and the second, with the use of CO2 membrane separation from flue gases arising from burning coal in the air. The use of oxy boiler, powered with oxygen from cryogenic ASU, and further compression of the exhausts arisen in this process up to the pressure of 20.68 MPa causes the efficiency decrease of 9.08 percentage points. It was calculated, that the use of membrane CO 2 separation and its further compression to the same pressure (20.68 MPa) will cause efficiency decrease only by about 6.13 percentage points. The use of waste heat from the separation process in the steam turbine cycle was proposed in this paper. It will decrease the electricity generation net efficiency by about 5.29 percentage points.


Janusz-Szymanska K.,Institute of Power Engineering and Turbomachinery of Poland | Kotowicz J.,Jest Dziekanem Wydzialu Inzynierii Srodowiska i Energetyki
Rynek Energii | Year: 2011

In this paper the influence of the CO2 separation system on the efficiency of a coal power plant was presented. For the analysis the pulverized coal power plant with the electric power rating at 900 MW and net efficiency equal to 45.46% was chosen. The analysis of the selection of a structure of the membrane module, pressure and the membrane surface area for CO2 recovery ratio and CO2 purity was performed. Two stage membrane module was proposed. This system allows to obtain CO2 purity at 0.9 and 90% separation degree of the total CO2 emission in the power plant. The analysis of the energy consumption of the CO2 membrane separation and CO2 compression process for its liquefaction was conducted. Such a CCS installation requires supply of the energy at the level of 142.36 MW (74.45 MW for the membrane separation and 67.91 MW for the CO2 compression) which corresponds to the energy intensity of the process equal to 0.94 MJ/kgCO2. It will decrease the electricity generation net efficiency to the level of 38.27%.


Bartela L.,Institute of Power Engineering and Turbomachinery of Poland | Kotowicz J.,Wydziau Inzynierii Srodowiska i Energetyki Oraz Kierownikiem Zakadu Miernictwa
Rynek Energii | Year: 2011

The paper shows the results of a thermodynamic analysis of using of nitrogen, which is a by-product of oxygen separation process, for drying lignite supplied to the boiler, operating in the oxy technology. In calculations the pulverized coal-fired boiler model and coal dryer balance model were used. In the first step the calculations for base assumptions, i.e. for wet-coal-fired oxy-boiler, were made. Then, the calculations for different nitrogen flow and for different dryer operation parameters were made. For the evaluation of using nitrogen for coal drying, boiler efficiency defined in the paper was calculated. The efficiency was determined both by direct, as well as the indirect method, which required the determination of boiler energy losses. Besides, the paper shows the results of analysis of boiler auxiliary power, which is associated with the power for driving the fans and power for the coal mill.


This paper presents the supercritical power unit of gross electrical equal to: 600 MW. This is a power plant working in the oxy-combustion technology, with a cryogenic air separation unit and a carbon capture and storage installation. In the fluidized bed boiler on the supercritical steam parameters 29 MPa/600 °C, a wet flue gas recirculation was applied. Each module, located in the structure of oxy plant was discussed. The assumptions used for the calculations and a methodology quantifying of the efficiency of electricity generation block was described. Values of energetic indices such as the boiler thermal efficiency, auxiliary power rates, and net efficiency of electricity generation, were specified. The results were compared with a reference power plant with a gross capacity of 600 MW, operating in the air-fired combustion.


Supercritical power plant analyzed in this paper, contains the following elements: steam turbine, hard coal fired oxy-type pulverized fuel boiler, air separation unit with four-end type high-temperature membrane and carbon dioxide capture unit. Gross electric power of the power plant is equal to 600 MW. Live steam thermodynamic parameters are 650 °C/30 MPa and reheated steam parameters are 670 °C/6 MPa. Under assumption of constant gross power of the analyzed power plant, a thermal boiler efficiency and auxiliary powers of mentioned above installations were designated as a function of oxygen recovery rate. They allowed to determine a net efficiency of the power plant for two oxygen recovery rates. This efficiency is lower by 8.3/9.4 percentage point than the reference power plant efficiency. Integration of all installation with steam turbine is crucial for the net efficiency increase. This operation allows to replace steam regenerative heat exchangers by gas-water heat exchangers. It allows to increase gross electrical power by up to 49 MW. As a result, the net efficiency of the analyzed power plant is 6.4/7.4 percentage points lower than the efficiency of the reference power plant. The economic analysis indicate that the oxy type power plants with integration of all installations with a steam turbine are profitable, because break-even price of electricity is lower by 9.53/12.53 PLN/MWh than the price for the reference power plant.


Bartela L.,Institute of Power Engineering and Turbomachinery of Poland | Skorek-Osikowska A.,Institute of Power Engineering and Turbomachinery of Poland
Rynek Energii | Year: 2010

The paper shows the results of calculations for a concept assuming the connection of the supercritical coalfired power plant (SCPP, so-called reference unit) with the gas turbine installation and heat recovery system. The components of this system were: a supercritical heat recovery steam generator and two flue-gases heat exchangers used for preheating of condensate and of feed water. The presence of heat exchangers permits to replace regeneration and to obtain in consequence higher nominal power rating of steam turbine. For the reference unit and assumed structure of multi-fuel hybrid cycle (MFHC) the key indicators of the thermodynamic and ecologic evaluation were defined. The analyses were carried out for assumed gas turbine model, i.e. GE MS9171. In the course of investigation the levels of 2 defined in the paper ratios of regeneration replacement were changed. The values of thermodynamic and ecologic effectiveness obtained for two specified values of regeneration replacement ratios were compared with values of effectiveness indicators obtained for reference unit and 3 alternative technologies. These technologies were: supercritical coal-fired power plant integrated with CCS installation (SCPP+CCS), simple cycle gas turbine (SCGT) and combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT).


Electricity production by the FC-42/HLC fuel cell stacks would be impossible without autonomic system that controls auxiliary devices. Autonomic control system consists of fuel cell's voltage and current measuring unit with undervoltage and overcurrent protection, anode purge unit, compressor's control unit supplying air to cathode, measuring and regulating system unit which control coolant temperature and cooler ventilators. The article presents research results and operating mode of all four above mentioned subassemblies of automatic control system for FC-42/HLC-720W.


Bartela L.,Institute of Power Engineering and Turbomachinery of Poland | Skorek-Osikowska A.,Institute of Power Engineering and Turbomachinery of Poland | Kotowicz J.,Institute of Power Engineering and Turbomachinery of Poland
Rynek Energii | Year: 2012

Integration of a heat and power plant unit with an absorption carbon dioxide capture installation, where for the desorption process large amount of heat is needed, can be much more problematic than in the case of condensing systems. It results from the limited availability of steam, which in the case of a heat and power plant is used for the production of useful heat. A relatively simple solution from the constructional point of view may be the use of an autonomous heat generator, which can be a biomass boiler or gas turbine, where the production of electricity is burdened with a relatively low carbon dioxide emission. This paper presents the results of the analysis of a supercritical power plant integrated with the absorption CO2 capture installation cooperating with an aeroderivative gas turbine and an evaporator. For such a system, the authors determined the average thermodynamic indicators, including the efficiency of electricity generation, heat generation, overall efficiency and environmental indictors, such as the average annual unit CO2 emissions per a unit of chemical energy of fuel and per unit net electricity. For the purpose of a comparison, the evaluation indices were also determined for a heat and power plant, in which carbon dioxide capture is not realized. In the analyses, a model of a heat and power plant was used, allowing for the simulation of the operation of the unit according to the assumed characteristics of heat load and temperature profiles of the district heating network.


Witkowski A.,Institute of Power Engineering and Turbomachinery of Poland | Rusin A.,Institute of Power Engineering and Turbomachinery of Poland | Majkut M.,Institute of Power Engineering and Turbomachinery of Poland | Rulik S.,Institute of Power Engineering and Turbomachinery of Poland | Stolecka K.,Institute of Power Engineering and Turbomachinery of Poland
Energy Conversion and Management | Year: 2013

The aim of this paper is to analyze CO2 compression and transportation processes with safety issues for post-combustion CO2 capture applications for basic technological concepts of a 900 MW pulverized coal-fired power plant. Four various types of compressors including a conventional multistage centrifugal compressor, an integrally geared centrifugal compressor, a supersonic shock wave compressor, and pump machines were used. This study emphasizes that total compression power is a strong function of the thermodynamic process and is not only determined by the compressor efficiency. The compressor increases the CO2 pressure from normal pressure to critical pressure and the boosting pump continues to increase the pressure to the required pressure for the pipeline inlet. Another problem analyzed in this study is the transport of CO2 by pipeline from the compressor outlet site to the disposal site under heat transfer conditions. Simulations were made to determine maximum safe pipeline distance to subsequent booster stations depending on inlet pressure, environmental temperature, the thermal insulation thickness and the ground level heat transfer conditions. From the point of view of environmental protection, the most important problem is to identify the hazards which indirectly affect CO2 transportation in a strict and reliable manner. This identification is essential for effective hazard management. A failure of pipelines is usually caused by corrosion, material defects, ground movement or third party interference. After the rupture of the pipeline transporting liquid CO2, a large pressure drop will occur. The pressure will continue to fall until the liquid becomes a mixture of saturated vapour/liquid. In the vicinity of the rupture, liquid CO2 will escape and immediately vaporize and expand. In the paper the discharge and atmospheric dispersion of CO2 are discussed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Ogulewicz W.,Institute of Power Engineering and Turbomachinery of Poland
Rynek Energii | Year: 2011

The research work presents the main issues of conversion of hydrogen fuel into electricity and heat. The amount of electricity produced by PEM type low-temperature membrane liquid-cooled fuel cell depends inter alia on cooling water temperature and excess air coefficient supplying cell's cathode. The article characterizes the investigative installation of two fuel cell stacks FC-42/HLC with the electric power of 360 W each, describes fuel cell with automatic control system co-operation and presents research results of influence presented parameters on the fuel cell work.

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