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Liu X.,National Climate Center | Yang S.,5830 University Research Court | Kumar A.,5830 University Research Court | Weaver S.,5830 University Research Court | And 2 more authors.
Climate Dynamics | Year: 2013

Biases of subseasonal prediction of the Asian summer monsoon are diagnosed using daily data from the hindcasts of 45-day integrations by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Climate Forecast System version 2. The retrospective forecasts often show apparent systematic biases, which are mostly represented by the underestimation of the whole Asian monsoon. Biases depend not only on lead time, but also on the stage of monsoon evolution. An abrupt turning point of bias development appears around late June and early July, when ensemble spread and bias growth of winds and precipitation show a significant change over the northwestern Pacific (NWP) and the South Asian summer monsoon (SASM) region. The abrupt turning of bias development of winds, precipitation, and surface temperature is also captured by the first two modes of multivariate empirical orthogonal function analysis. Several features appear associated with the abrupt change in bias development: the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) begins its first northward jump and the surface temperature over the Tibetan Plateau commences a transition from warm bias to cold bias, and a reversal of surface temperature biases occurs in the eastern tropical Indian Ocean and the SASM region. The shift of WPSH position and the transition of surface thermal bias show close relationships with the formation of bias centers in winds and precipitation. The rapid growth in bias due to the strong internal atmospheric variability during short leads seems to mainly account for the weak WPSH and SASM in the model. However, at certain stages, particularly for longer-lead predictions, the biases of slowly varying components may also play an important role in bias development of winds and precipitation. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Wang S.,Institute of Plateau Meteorology | Zhang X.,University of Sichuan
Theoretical and Applied Climatology | Year: 2012

On the basis of the mean annual and seasonal temperatures from 30 meteorological stations in the Jinsha River Basin (JRB) from 1961 to 2008, the temperature trends are analyzed by using Mann-Kendall test and linear trend analysis. There is an increasing trend in mean annual and seasonal temperatures during this period, and the increasing trends in winter seem more significant than those in the other three seasons. The mean annual temperature has increased by 0. 0158°C/year during the last 48 years. There are more than 70% of stations exhibiting increasing trends for annual and seasonal temperatures. The increasing trends in the headwater and upper reaches are more dominant than those in the middle and lower reaches. The largest increase magnitude occurred in the low temperature area, while the largest decrease magnitude occurred in the high temperature area. The decreasing trends are mainly characterized for the maximum temperature time series, and summer is the only season showing a slight and insignificant increasing trend. All the time series showed a statistically significant increasing trend at the level of α = 0. 05 for the minimum temperature time series. As a whole, the increasing magnitude of the minimum temperature is significantly greater than the decreasing magnitude of the maximum temperature. © 2012 Springer-Verlag. Source


Gao H.,National Climate Center | Yang S.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Kumar A.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Hu Z.-Z.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Climate | Year: 2011

The East Asian mei-yu (EAMY), which includes the mei-yu over eastern China, baiu over Japan, and changma over Korea, is an important component of the Asia summer monsoon system. The EAMY rain belt jumps northward to the Yangtze and Huaihe River valleys (in China), Japan, and Korea from mid-June to mid-July, with remarkable interannual variability. In this study, the variability and predictability of EAMY are investigated using the retrospective ensemble predictions of the NCEP Climate Forecast System (CFS). The CFS reasonably captures the centers, magnitude, northward jump, and other features of EAMY over most regions. It also reasonably simulates the interannual variations of EAMY and its main influencing factors such as the western Pacific subtropical high, the East Asian monsoon circulation, and El Niño- Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The CFS is skillful in predicting EAMY and related circulation patterns with a lead time of one month. An empirical orthogonal function analysis with maximized signal-to-noise ratio is applied to determine the most predictable patterns of EAMY. Furthermore, experiments in which the CFS is forced by observed sea surface temperature (SST) exhibit lower skill in EAMY simulation, suggesting the importance of ocean-atmosphere coupling in predicting EAMY. The CFS, which exaggerates the precipitation over the southern-southeastern hills of the Tibetan Plateau, overestimates the relationship between EAMY and tropical-subtropical atmospheric circulation due to the overly strong ENSO signals in the model, whereas the experiments forced by observed SST produce a weaker relationship. On the contrary, the CFS underestimates the link of EAMY to higher-latitude processes. An increase in the horizontal resolution of the CFS is expected to reduce some of these errors. © 2011 American Meteorological Society. Source


Yang S.,Sun Yat Sen University | Jiang X.,Institute of Plateau Meteorology
Journal of Climate | Year: 2014

The eastern Pacific (EP) El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the central Pacific (CP) ENSO exert different influences on climate. In this study, the authors analyze the hindcasts of the NCEP Climate Forecast System, version 2 (CFSv2), and assess the skills of predicting the two types of ENSO and their impacts on East Asian climate. The possible causes of different prediction skills for different types of ENSOare also discussed. CFSv2 captures the spatial patterns of sea surface temperature (SST) related to the two types of ENSO and their different climate impacts several months in advance. The dynamical prediction of the two types of ENSO by the model, whose skill is season dependent, is better than the prediction based on the persistency of observed ENSO-related SST, especially for summer and fall. CFSv2 performs well in predicting EP ENSO and its impacts on the East Asian winter monsoon and on the Southeast Asian monsoon during its decaying summer. However, for both EP ENSO and CP ENSO, the model overestimates the extent of the anomalous anticyclone over the western North Pacific Ocean from the developing autumn to the next spring but underestimates the magnitude of climate anomalies in general. It fails to simulate the SST pattern and climate impact of CP ENSO during its developing summer. The model's deficiency in predicting CP ENSO may be linked to a warm bias in the eastern Pacific. However, errors in simulating the climate impacts of the two types of ENSO should not be solely ascribed to the bias in SST simulation. © 2014 American Meteorological Society. Source


Wu R.,Center for Ocean Land Atmosphere Studies | Wen Z.,Sun Yat Sen University | Yang S.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Li Y.,Institute of Plateau Meteorology
Journal of Climate | Year: 2010

The present study documents a pronounced interdecadal change in summer rainfall over southern China around 1992/93 and explores the plausible reasons for this change. The summer rainfall is persistently below normal during 1980-92 and above normal during 1993-2002. Coherent changes in atmospheric circulation are identified over East Asia and the South China Sea (SCS)-western North Pacific (WNP). The increase in rainfall is accompanied by an increase in lower-level convergence, midtropospheric ascent, and upper-level divergence over southern China. The changes in lower-level winds feature two anomalous anticyclones: one over the SCS-subtropical WNP, and the other over north China-Mongolia. The outflows from the two anomalous anticyclones converge over southern China, leading to anomalous moisture convergence, enhanced ascent, and increased rainfall. The development of the northern anticyclone is related to an increase in the Tibetan Plateau snow cover in the preceding winter-spring that leads to a contrast in temperature change between the plateau and the surrounding regions. The relatively small temperature change over the plateau, coupled with increases in temperature to the west and the east, leads to an increase in surface pressure extending northward from the plateau. The development of the southern anticyclone is related to an increase in sea surface temperature in the equatorial Indian Ocean that enhances lower-level convergence and ascent. The accompanying upper-level divergent flows from the tropical Indian Ocean to the SCS-WNP lead to the development of anomalous descent and lower-level anomalous anticyclone over the SCS-WNP. © 2010 American Meteorological Society. Source

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