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Lozowicka B.,Institute of Plant Protection
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2015

The presence of pesticide residues in apples raises serious health concerns, especially when the fresh fruits are consumed by children, particularly vulnerable to the pesticide hazards. This study demonstrates the results from nine years of investigation (2005-2013) of 696 samples of Polish apples for 182 pesticides using gas and liquid chromatography and spectrophotometric techniques. Only 33.5% of the samples did not contain residues above the limit of detection. In 66.5% of the samples, 34 pesticides were detected, of which maximum residue level (MRL) was exceeded in 3%. Multiple residues were present in 35% of the samples with two to six pesticides, and one sample contained seven compounds. A study of the health risk for children, adults and the general population consuming apples with these pesticides was performed. The pesticide residue data have been combined with the consumption of apples in the 97.5 percentile and the mean diet. A deterministic model was used to assess the chronic and acute exposures that are based on the average and high concentrations of residues. Additionally, the "worst-case scenario" and "optimistic case scenario" were used to assess the chronic risk. In certain cases, the total dietary pesticide intake calculated from the residue levels observed in apples exceeds the toxicological criteria. Children were the group most exposed to the pesticides, and the greatest short-term hazard stemmed from flusilazole at 624%, dimethoate at 312%, tebuconazole at 173%, and chlorpyrifos methyl and captan with 104% Acute Reference Dose (ARfD) each. In the cumulative chronic exposure, among the 17 groups of compounds studied, organophosphate insecticides constituted 99% acceptable daily intake (ADI). The results indicate that the occurrence of pesticide residues in apples could not be considered a serious public health problem. Nevertheless, an investigation into continuous monitoring and tighter regulation of pesticide residues is recommended. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Matyjaszczyk E.,Institute of Plant Protection
Journal of Plant Protection Research | Year: 2011

In the years 2003-2009, a significant reduction of active substances of plant protection products was observed in Poland. The amount of active substances decreased from 340 in 2003 to 279 in 2009. The real difference proved to be much higher because some substances were being withdrawn, and at the same time, new ones were being introduced on the market. The reductions were observed in all groups of plant protection products. The biggest decrease took place in the case of insecticides, which also had a smaller than average number of registered formulations compared to herbicides and fungicides. Herbicides had the highest number of registered formulations per active substance, while fungicides were the only group where the average number of registered formulations per active substance had increased in the analyzed period.The main reason for the described changes was the European Union's review of active substances. Substances which could pose a risk for humans or the environment were withdrawn. This positively influenced overall safety. The changes, however, also gave rise to some problems which are noted. Particularly pressing in Poland, is the problem of minor crops protection.


Nawrot J.,Institute of Plant Protection | Harmatha J.,Czech Institute of Organic Chemistry And Biochemistry
Phytochemistry Reviews | Year: 2012

This review summarises information on compounds of plant origin and plant products as feeding inhibitors for stored product insects. More than 200 compounds (mostly sesquiterpenes) and over 160 plant extracts have been tested to date. Indeed, we did not consider substances stimulating olfactory receptors (repellents) or compounds just toxic to insects. The main scope of the review is to enable best choice for the most active, as well as biorationally suitable substances, for evolving further rational experiments in future. Feeding inhibitors may be used along with food or sex attractants in biorational control of the stored food pests. However, each semiochemical should be submitted to a formal registration process before its use in practice. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


In the present work, the feasibility of the combined use of concurrent solvent recondensation-large volume injection (CSR-LVI) and interspersed calibration for pesticide residue analysis was investigated. Splitless injections of 5-20μL extracts containing 0.25-1g sample per mL-1 were made into a Carbofrit packed liner and a 0.53mm I.D., uncoated and deactivated retention gap. The determination was achieved by gas chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QqQ-MS/MS). The evaluation of the proposed approach was based on analysis of real samples representing a diverse range of commodities such as apples, barley malt, blackcurrants, carrots, clemetines, grapes, leek, plums, rapeseed (green plants) rucola, strawberries and tomatoes. The samples contained a total of 36 different incurred pesticides at different concentration levels. Also, analyses were carried out of artificial samples representing six differing matrices (apples, blackcurrants, carrots, huckleberry, strawberry and tomatoes) which were spiked with pesticides at known concentrations before proceeding with the extraction. When using 15 and 20μL CSR-LVI injection, a decrease of about 30% in peak heights compared with injection of 5μL was observed. In the case of 5 and 10μL injections, no significant difference was observed when employing to the quantification of the incurred and spiked pesticide residues. In the evaluated experimental variants, overall recoveries of the pesticides were 92±5% with relative standard deviations of 12±4% on average. All individual recoveries were in the range between 72 and 103 with RSD between 4 and 21%. About 15% of the instrument run time was saved by the application of interspersed calibration with standards injected between sample extracts. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


The experiment was conducted in the 2006-2008 time period, in Nienadówka near Rzeszów, Poland (50°11' N, 22°06' E). The high suitability of light traps for the monitoring of Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn. moth flights on maize fields was shown. These light traps were compared to the pheromone types of traps; the "delta" model, and the "funnel" with a pheromone dispenser containing Z-11-tetradecenyl acetate (series ONC036A and ONC048A/107). In the light trap, the first moths were found in the second decade or third decade of June. The population peak was in the first decade or second decade of July, and the end of the flight in August. In September 2007 and 2008, single O. nubilalis moths collected in the light trap indicated the presence of a small second pest generation. The first male moths were captured in the pheromone traps in the third decade of June or the first decade of July, with a slightly marked population peak in the first or second decade of July. The moth flight ended in the last decade of July.The first egg clusters of O. nubilalis were usually recorded 4-7 days after the first moths were found in the light trap. In the pheromone traps, the first male O. nubilalis individuals were usually found a few days following the oviposition of the first pest egg clusters, except in 2006, when the moths presence was observed in the field 2-3 days before the first eggs were found on maize plants.

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