News Article | May 23, 2017
In the new cryodepository, first it is planned to place duplicates of the most valuable samples from the collection of the Institute of Plant Physiology (IPPRAS). Among them there are cell cultures of rare species growing from Baikal to Amur. Some of them, for example the Polyscias filicifolia cell culture, are already used for the medicinal preparations production (Vitagmal, Trifitol and others). A number of others, like the Panax japonicus, Dioscorea deltoidea, are of great interest for the production of medicines, nutraceuticals and cosmetics. When the methods to freeze valuable genotypes are developed within the framework of the "Noah's Ark" project, their duplicates are planned to be stored in the cryobank of the IPPRAS. Duplication is the main principle of the reliable storage. Thus, the system of Russian biotechnological collections and cryobanks will be one of the most reliable in the world. However, it is not easy to prepare the biotechnological samples for the storage. For each cell culture or meristem, it is necessary to develop an individual freezing procedure. "First, we gradually adapt the cells to low temperatures, then we add the cryoprotector to the medium, then we cool the cells down to -40C. We have to develop an individual program for each cell culture," says Professor Alexander Nosov, head of the Department of Plants Physiology in Moscow State University, - Good that you can do without moving to another room." In a separate room of the cryobank there is a system of the liquid nitrogen autonomous generation from the air. "The system consists of several parts: the compressor draws in air under pressure, then there is a nitrogen separation from the impurities of other gases, and the last stage is the liquefaction of nitrogen," says Vladimir Lobakov, chief engineer of the Moscow State University Centre of Excellence in Biotechnology HYPERLINK "http://meuip. " \t "_blank" INCLUDEPICTURE "http://meuip. " \* MERGEFORMATINET . - The system is completely autonomous: it turns on when the amount of liquid nitrogen in the final tank is less than the lower limit, and turns off when the upper threshold is exceeded." Biological material will be stored not in liquid nitrogen itself, but in its vapor. "There are researches for animal objects (though a few), that the cross contamination is possible when stored directly in liquid nitrogen", comments Prof. Alexander Nosov. - Storage in liquid nitrogen vapor completely excludes this possibility. One of the scientific purposes of our cryobank is to study the probability of this danger for plant objects." There are two cryobanks of biotechnological material in Russia: in the IPPRAS and now in the Moscow State University. The new cryobank was created with the support of the Russian Science Foundation within the framework of the "Plants" section of the "Noah's Ark" project. There are only few such storages in the world. The famous international storehouse in Spitsbergen is intended only for seeds, it is impossible to store cell cultures and meristems in it.
Kalaji H.M.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences |
Schansker G.,Avenue des Amazones 2 |
Ladle R.J.,Federal University of Alagoas |
Goltsev V.,Sofia University |
And 25 more authors.
Photosynthesis Research | Year: 2014
The aim of this educational review is to provide practical information on the hardware, methodology, and the hands on application of chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence technology. We present the paper in a question and answer format like frequently asked questions. Although nearly all information on the application of Chl a fluorescence can be found in the literature, it is not always easily accessible. This paper is primarily aimed at scientists who have some experience with the application of Chl a fluorescence but are still in the process of discovering what it all means and how it can be used. Topics discussed are (among other things) the kind of information that can be obtained using different fluorescence techniques, the interpretation of Chl a fluorescence signals, specific applications of these techniques, and practical advice on different subjects, such as on the length of dark adaptation before measurement of the Chl a fluorescence transient. The paper also provides the physiological background for some of the applied procedures. It also serves as a source of reference for experienced scientists. © 2014 The Author(s).
Zorina A.,Institute of Plant Physiology |
Stepanchenko N.,Institute of Plant Physiology |
Novikova G.V.,Institute of Plant Physiology |
Sinetova M.,Institute of Plant Physiology |
And 9 more authors.
DNA Research | Year: 2011
Serine/threonine protein kinases (STPKs) are the major participants in intracellular signal transduction in eukaryotes, such as yeasts, fungi, plants, and animals. Genome sequences indicate that these kinases are also present in prokaryotes, such as cyanobacteria. However, their roles in signal transduction in prokaryotes remain poorly understood. We have attempted to identify the roles of STPKs in response to heat stress in the prokaryotic cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, which has 12 genes for STPKs. Each gene was individually inactivated to generate a gene-knockout library of STPKs. We applied in vitro Ser/Thr protein phosphorylation and phosphoproteomics and identified the methionyl-tRNA synthetase, large subunit of RuBisCO, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, translation elongation factor Tu, heat-shock protein GrpE, and small chaperonin GroES as the putative targets for Ser/Thr phosphorylation. The expressed and purified GroES was used as an external substrate to screen the protein extracts of the individual mutants for their Ser/Thr kinase activities. The mutants that lack one of the three protein kinases, SpkC, SpkF, and SpkK, were unable to phosphorylate GroES in vitro, suggesting possible interactions between them towards their substrate. Complementation of the mutated SpkC, SpkF, and SpkK leads to the restoration of the ability of cells to phosphorylate the GroES. This suggests that these three STPKs are organized in a sequential order or a cascade and they work one after another to finally phosphorylate the GroES. © 2011 The Author.
News Article | December 21, 2016
You were born in 1914 and went to school in London. What sparked your interest in ecology? At St Paul’s School, a very good teacher led me from an earlier interest in chemistry into biology. Then at Imperial College London, Botany seemed a stronger department than Zoology. A PhD was a natural progression from the first degree. Some support was available and no jobs were clearly in prospect. You completed your PhD in 1941, during the second world war. What was that like? When the war started I was given a full-time position in the Research Institute of Plant Physiology, on secondment to East Malling Research Station, where I was located throughout the war years. In my spare time I wrote my PhD thesis. At East Malling the scientists were working on horticulture and plant breeding. Did this get you out of conscription? Not only was I exempt from conscription – I was not allowed to join the Forces. I did join the Home Guard but that was undemanding. My work at East Malling was concerned with optimum use of fertilisers and hence with maximising food production. As a scientist, did you have German colleagues before the war? I don’t remember contacts with German colleagues, but before the war I had travelled extensively in northern Europe, and in 1936 I spent a month in Dortmund, Germany, with a Nazi family. How did you feel when war broke out? I regarded the war as defensive, a fight against fascism. Did some part of you wish you could join up and fight? Exclusion from the armed forces was fully acceptable – I took it as a matter of course. How about family life or marriage? Family life started for me in 1940 when I married Veronica. I had a son with Veronica, and two children by my second marriage. I have 12 grandchildren, and 16 great grandchildren so far. Did your parents live to a great age? Have you thought about your genetics and how that might have contributed to your longevity? My mother’s family commonly lived to 90. I would say: To keep alive, keep active. Yes, genetics helps. But I think by the end of this century centenarians may be two a penny. After the war you worked in Ghana, before it achieved independence from Britain. What was that like? I lived in Tafo, in a house provided by the Colonial Service. I paid a “cook-steward” to look after it. The nearest town was Koforidua, and opportunities to visit there came most weeks. At Tafo there was a club house, with tennis (which I used) and golf (which I did not). My main project was to study the need of cocoa for shade. Relations with local people were good. The limited resources compared with England did not worry me. You’ve settled in Australia, how did that come about? In 1948 and again in 1974, I came to Australia for particular jobs. I like Perth’s climate, it’s fairly good, but I would prefer not to have a winter. Do you worry about the future? I am very pessimistic. It is too late to take effective action on climate change. At least as important is human population, which will increase to 10 billion by the end of the century. Any advice for younger scientists? Keep aware of the history of your field - the decline of libraries makes it easy to forget.
PubMed | RAS Timiryazev Institute of Plant Physiology, RAS A.N. Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Moscow State University, Institute of Plant Physiology and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Biophysical journal | Year: 2017
Orange carotenoid protein (OCP), responsible for the photoprotection of the cyanobacterial photosynthetic apparatus under excessive light conditions, undergoes significant rearrangements upon photoconversion and transits from the stable orange to the signaling red state. This is thought to involve a 12- translocation of the carotenoid cofactor and separation of the N- and C-terminal protein domains. Despite clear recent progress, the detailed mechanism of the OCP photoconversion and associated photoprotection remains elusive. Here, we labeled the OCP of Synechocystis with tetramethylrhodamine-maleimide (TMR) and obtained a photoactive OCP-TMR complex, the fluorescence of which was highly sensitive to the protein state, showing unprecedented contrast between the orange and red states and reflecting changes in protein conformation and the distances from TMR to the carotenoid throughout the photocycle. The OCP-TMR complex was sensitive to the light intensity, temperature, and viscosity of the solvent. Based on the observed Frster resonance energy transfer, we determined that upon photoconversion, the distance between TMR (donor) bound to a cysteine in the C-terminal domain and the carotenoid (acceptor) increased by 18, with simultaneous translocation of the carotenoid into the N-terminal domain. Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy revealed a significant decrease of the OCP rotation rate in the red state, indicating that the light-triggered conversion of the protein is accompanied by an increase of its hydrodynamic radius. Thus, our results support the idea of significant structural rearrangements of OCP, providing, to our knowledge, new insights into the structural rearrangements of OCP throughout the photocycle and a completely novel approach to the study of its photocycle and non-photochemical quenching. We suggest that this approach can be generally applied to other photoactive proteins.
Sass L.,Institute of Plant Physiology |
Majer P.,Institute of Plant Physiology |
Hideg E.,University of Pécs
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2012
Computer analysis of digital photographic images provides fast, high-throughput screening of leaf pigmentation. Pixel-by-pixel conversion of red, green, blue (RGB) parameters to hue, saturation, value (HSV) showed that Hue values were proportional to total chlorophyll, offering an alternative to photometric analysis of leaf extracts. This is demonstrated using tobacco leaves with various chlorophyll contents due to senescence but shows the possibility of applications in studies of stress conditions accompanied by chlorophyll loss. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.