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Oslovicova V.,Slovak University of Agriculture | Simmonds J.R.,John Innes Center | Snape J.W.,John Innes Center | Galova Z.,Slovak University of Agriculture | And 3 more authors.
Cereal Research Communications | Year: 2014

In this study we evaluate the genetic diversity of a selection of wheat accessions characteristically grown and adapted to mid-European environments, using various molecular marker systems. Thirty-three simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used alongside genic markers for known dwarfing genes, flowering time genes, and grain hardness genes, namely Rht-B1, Rht-D1, Ppd-D1, Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1, Vrn-D1 and Pinb-D1. In addition, variation was scored for the high-molecular-weight glutenin storage proteins, responsible for dough technological quality. A dendrogram was constructed using the UPGMA algorithm, based on the molecular data and the country of origin, giving an overview of their genetic similarity and relationships. The potential for the use of some agronomic traits in breeding, by providing a basis for multi-trait genetic selection in wheat breeding programs is discussed. Estimating the breeding values of crops using multiple genetic markers might help in breeding for varieties with good technological quality for growing under desired climatic conditions.

Iliev I.,University of Forestry | Scaltsoyiannes A.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Tsaktsira M.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Gajdosova A.,Institute of Plant Genetics and Biotechnology
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2010

Fifty-year-old specimens of Betula pendula 'Dalecarlica', 'Fastigiata', 'Purpurea', 'Youngii', and var. typica were used as donor plants. For callus induction, leaves obtained from in vitro were used as initial explants. The effects of the cultivar types and different media (MS, WPM and S) supplemented with zeatin (2, 5, and 10 mg L -1) or BA (0.5, 0.8, and 1.0 mg L -1) on adventitious bud formation from callus segments were studied. The best regeneration potential was observed in 'Youngii' and the purest in 'dalecarlica'. The best results were obtained on medium S containing 5 and 10 mg L -1 zeatin. The effect of IBA (0.3 and 0.5 mg L -1), NAA (0.3 and 0.5 mg L -1) and their combinations on the rooting of adventitious shoots was investigated. The highest percentage of rooting (100%) and the best root system was achieved on half-strength MS medium in combination with 0.3 mg L -1 IBA and 0.3 mg L -1 NAA. The high air humidity and the type of substrate were important factors for successful acclimatization. Maximum survival of plants (from 98.3 ± 1.7% up to 100.0 ± 0.0%) was obtained by opening the test tubes in the cultivation room for a period of 6 days, ensuring high air humidity for 14 days, and utilizing peat. The genotypes of the donor and in vitro propagated plants were analyzed by seven isozyme systems (GOT, IDH, LAP, MDH, PGI, PGM, and 6- PGD). Changes of the isozyme fractions of in vitro- propagated plants in comparison with the donor plants were not found.

Klubicova K.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Rashydov N.M.,Institute of Cell Biology and Genetic Engineering | Hajduch M.,Institute of Plant Genetics and Biotechnology | Hajduch M.,Slovak Academy of Sciences
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2014

Two serious nuclear accidents during the past quarter of a century contaminated large agricultural areas with radioactivity. The remediation and possible recovery of radio-contaminated areas for agricultural purposes require comprehensive characterization of plants grown in such places. Here we describe the quantitative proteomics method that we use to analyze proteins isolated from seeds of plants grown in radioactive Chernobyl zone. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IRSES | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2013-IRSES | Award Amount: 285.00K | Year: 2013

Anthropogenic activities continue to impact the environment causing soil and ground water contamination in many regions and the effects are often persistent especially where heavy metals and radioactive substances have been released. Ecological problems can be particularly severe in the case of atomic power facilities and recent occurrences (Japan) indicate that the Chernobyl incident in 1986 was by no means unique. Moreover, such accidents hold a profound dread factor for the general population. Environmental pollution can be equally profound and even more persistent in the case of mining waste which contaminates large areas of Europe with diverse heavy metals. Plants adapt to chronic radiation and heavy metal contamination as demonstrated by re-colonization of polluted areas. This project aims to understand the basic principles of protective mechanisms and how such pollution affects the stability of the genome. We propose to establish a research network to evaluate and exploit unique resources in the Chernobyl zone and in mining sites (Wales, UK) as open area laboratories for studying how changes of DNA are coordinated with internal cellular networks during plant response to these pollutants. We use a combination of genetic, cell biological, molecular and evolutionary strategies. Part of the project is devoted to crop plants and their ability to grow in contaminated sites with the idea to increase productivity and safety. For the first time, eight research teams with complementary experience in radiation and other plant stresses will cooperate for solving the common for Europe problem of survival in contaminated nature. This will provide the insights on an increasingly detailed knowledge of the regulatory mechanisms for plant stress tolerance and gives an opportunity to see how the problems of Chernobyl and other contaminated places could be solved by scientists and what could be done in order to secure human life against environmental pollution.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IRG | Phase: PEOPLE-2007-4-3.IRG | Award Amount: 100.00K | Year: 2007

With each passing year since Chernobyl accident, more questions arise about the potential for organisms adapt to radiation exposure. The explosion of one of the four reactors of Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 26 April 1986 caused worst environmental nuclear disaster in the history. It transported vast amounts of radioactive material into the atmosphere, much of which was subsequently deposited not only in the immediate vicinity of power plant in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, but over the large parts of Europe. In this proposal, quantitative protein reference maps will be used to identify differentially expressed proteins in developing embryo, endosperm and seed coats of Chernobyl-grown plants compared to control. These reference maps will be generated during five stages of soybean and flax seed development using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) in combination with liquid chromatography connected with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for protein identification.

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