Institute of Plant Breeding

Athens, GA, United States

Institute of Plant Breeding

Athens, GA, United States
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Serba D.D.,Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation | Serba D.D.,Oak Ridge National Laboratory | Daverdin G.,Institute of Plant Breeding | Daverdin G.,University of Georgia | And 13 more authors.
BioEnergy Research | Year: 2014

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) biomass yield and feedstock quality improvement are priority research areas for bioenergy feedstock development. Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying these traits and of trait-linked markers for application in marker-assisted selection (MAS) is of paramount importance in facilitating switchgrass breeding. Detection of QTL for biomass yield and plant height was conducted on parental linkage maps constructed using a heterozygous pseudo-F1 population derived from a cross between lowland Alamo genotype AP13 and upland Summer genotype VS16. QTL analysis was performed with composite interval mapping. Four QTL for biomass yield and five QTL for plant height were identified using best linear unbiased predictors across ten and eight environments, respectively. The phenotypic variability explained (PVE) by QTL detected in the across environments analysis ranged from 4.9 to 12.4 % for biomass yield and 5.1 to 12.0 % for plant height. A total of 34 and 38 main effect QTL were detected for biomass yield and plant height, respectively, when data from each environment were analyzed separately. The PVE by individual environment QTL ranged from 3.3 to 15.3 % for biomass yield and from 4.3 to 17.4 % for plant height. In addition, 60 and 51 epistatic QTL were detected for biomass yield and plant height, respectively. Significant QTL by environment interactions were detected for QTL mapped in eight genomic regions for each of the two traits. Seven QTL affected both traits and may represent pleiotropic loci. Overall, 11 genomic regions were identified that were important in controlling biomass yield and/or plant height in switchgrass. The markers linked to the main effect and epistatic QTL may be used in MAS to maximize selection gain in switchgrass breeding, leading to a faster development of better biofuel cultivars. © 2014 The Author(s).

Yan J.,Institute of Paper Science And Technology | Hu Z.,Institute of Paper Science And Technology | Pu Y.,Institute of Paper Science And Technology | Charles Brummer E.,Institute of Plant Breeding | And 2 more authors.
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2010

Four populations of switchgrass (Alamo, GA993, GA992, Kanlow), Panicum virgatum L., were studied for the difference of their chemical constituents. The extractives, Klason lignin, and carbohydrates compositions of the stem portion of these switchgrass populations were determined by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and high performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) respectively. Ball milled grass lignin (BMGL) was isolated and analyzed by NMR spectroscopy. The results demonstrated that the chemical compositions of four switchgrass populations were similar with the exception of the lignin content and chemical composition of extractives. The results of quantitative 13C NMR spectroscopy indicated that switchgrass lignin consisted of p-hydroxylphenyl, guaiacyl, and syringyl units in an average ratio of 26:42:32 and incorporated with p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid at a level of approximately 0.20 per aromatic ring. The lignin structure of four switchgrass cultivars was comparable. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

Parvathaneni R.K.,Institute of Plant Breeding | Jakkula V.,University of Georgia | Jakkula V.,Monsanto Corporation | Padi F.K.,Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana | And 12 more authors.
G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics | Year: 2013

Pearlmillet is one of the most important subsistence crops grown in India and sub-Saharan Africa. In many cereal crops, reduced height is a key trait for enhancing yield, and dwarf mutants have been extensively used in breeding to reduce yield loss due to lodging under intense management. In pearl millet, the recessive d2 dwarfing gene has been deployed widely in commercial germplasm grown in India, the United States, and Australia. Despite its importance, very little research has gone into determining the identity of the d2 gene. We used comparative information, genetic mapping in two F2 populations representing a total of some 1500 progeny, and haplotype analysis of three tall and three dwarf inbred lines to delineate the d2 region by two genetic markers that, in sorghum, define a region of 410 kb with 40 annotated genes. One of the sorghum genes annotated within this region is ABCB1, which encodes a P-glycoprotein involved in auxin transport. This gene had previously been shown to underlie the economically important dw3 dwarf mutation in sorghum. The cosegregation of ABCB1 with the d2 phenotype, its differential expression in the tall inbred ICMP 451 and the dwarf inbred Tift 23DB, and the similar phenotype of stacked lower internodes in the sorghum dw3 and pearl millet d2 mutants suggest that ABCB1 is a likely candidate for d2. © 2013 Parvathaneni et al.

PubMed | Institute of Plant Breeding
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Plant cell reports | Year: 2013

The role of ethylene in embryogenesis of cultured potato anthers was studied indirectly by testing various substances known to affect ethylene formation. The reducing agents ascorbic acid and L-cysteine prevented browning of anther cultures and significantly stimulated embryogenesis. Embryogenesis was also promoted by the use of the ethylene inhibitors AgNO3 and n-propyl-gallate and by the polyamines spermidine and putrescine. The use of the ethylene releasing compound ethrel significantly inhibited embryogenesis.

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