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Turuspekov Y.,Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology
Genetika | Year: 2013

Barley plays an important role in agricultural sector of Kazakhstan and it is grown in many different climate zones over 1.5 min hectares annually. Therefore development of optimal cultivars for specific environments is a major challenge for barley breeding community in Kazakhstan. One of the approaches to address this question is to test large collection of commercial cultivars and advanced lines over a number of environmental sites that reflect major spatial and temporal climate variations in the country. In this work 103 cultivars and advanced lines of spring barley bred in six different breeding stations of Kazakhstan were grown in different testing sites in seven regions over 2009-2011 years. The major tasks of this research were to evaluate genotype x x environment interactions and assess grain yield in associations with developmental stages of barley, such as heading date and seed maturation date. The results suggest that (i) heading and seed maturation dates are significantly correlated with grain yield in specific regions and may have opposite correlation indexes in response to environmental conditions; (ii) accessions of different bred origin vary in their ability to exhibit environmentally-dependent plastic responses; (iii) spatial variation was more important than temporal variation in GxE interactions; (iv) biplot analysis is effective approach in identification of best suitable and stable accessions for both broad and narrow environments. The obtained results are further contribution to understanding of complex mechanisms of genotype x environment interactions. Source


Volis S.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Ormanbekova D.,University of Bologna | Yermekbayev K.,Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology
Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2015

Species can adapt to new environmental conditions either through individual phenotypic plasticity, intraspecific genetic differentiation in adaptive traits, or both. Wild emmer wheat, Triticum dicoccoides, an annual grass with major distribution in Eastern Mediterranean region, is predicted to experience in the near future, as a result of global climate change, conditions more arid than in any part of the current species distribution. To understand the role of the above two means of adaptation, and the effect of population range position, we analyzed reaction norms, extent of plasticity, and phenotypic selection across two experimental environments of high and low water availability in two core and two peripheral populations of this species. We studied 12 quantitative traits, but focused primarily on the onset of reproduction and maternal investment, which are traits that are closely related to fitness and presumably involved in local adaptation in the studied species. We hypothesized that the population showing superior performance under novel environmental conditions will either be genetically differentiated in quantitative traits or exhibit higher phenotypic plasticity than the less successful populations. We found the core population K to be the most plastic in all three trait categories (phenology, reproductive traits, and fitness) and most successful among populations studied, in both experimental environments; at the same time, the core K population was clearly genetically differentiated from the two edge populations. Our results suggest that (1) two means of successful adaptation to new environmental conditions, phenotypic plasticity and adaptive genetic differentiation, are not mutually exclusive ways of achieving high adaptive ability; and (2) colonists from some core populations can be more successful in establishing beyond the current species range than colonists from the range extreme periphery with conditions seemingly closest to those in the new environment. Our results suggest that (1) two means of successful adaptation to new environmental conditions, phenotypic plasticity and adaptive genetic differentiation, are not mutually exclusive ways of achieving high adaptive ability; and (2) colonists from some core populations can be more successful in establishing beyond the current species range than colonists from the range extreme periphery with conditions seemingly closest to those in the new environment. © 2015 Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source


Efremova T.,RAS Institute of Cytology and Genetics | Arbuzova V.,RAS Institute of Cytology and Genetics | Leonova I.,RAS Institute of Cytology and Genetics | Makhmudova K.,Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology
Cereal Research Communications | Year: 2011

Two intervarietal substitution lines of common wheat cv. Sava bearing chromosome 5B from Saratovskaya 29 and Diamant 2 donors and two near-isogenic lines (NILs) of winter cv. Bezostaya 1 with the Vrn-B1 locus from the same donors were developed. Multiple allelism of the dominant Vrn-B1 locus was studied in these lines. It manifested itself as earing time variation in plants grown near Novosibirsk (West Siberia), Almaty (Kazakhstan), and in a greenhouse. One dominant allele, Vrn-B1S, having a stronger effect on earing time, was detected in Saratovskaya 29 and another, Vrn-B1Dm, in Diamant 2. The NILs and substitution lines are late-ripening. Lines with Vrn-B1S come to earing earlier than with Vrn-B1. Source


Turuspekov Y.,Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology | Abugalieva S.,Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology | Ermekbayev K.,Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology | Sato K.,Okayama University
Breeding Science | Year: 2015

The wild ancestral form of barley, Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum, is a valuable source for gene enrichment of cultivated barley. The purpose of this work was to study the area of distribution as well as the extent and structure of genetic variation of wild barley populations grown in Kazakhstan. It was found that distribution of wild barley populations in Kazakhstan is restricted to the most southern province. A genome wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis was performed in order to study the level of the genetic diversity in 96 accessions representing 14 wild barley populations from Kazakhstan and 25 accessions from the Middle East which is the center of diversity of this subspecies. The oligonucleotide pooled assay was used to genotype 384 SNPs distributed throughout the genome. In total 233 polymorphic SNPs were selected for further statistical analysis. The level of genetic diversity of wild barley populations from Kazakhstan was predictably narrower (He = 0.19 ± 0.01) in comparison with wild barley samples from the Middle East (He = 0.29 ± 0.01). The results suggested that H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum populations in Kazakhstan probably represent a recent spread of a limited number of plants from the primary distribution area and might be well adapted to winter low temperature. © 2014, Japanese Society of Breeding. All rights reserved. Source


Nakano H.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Mamonov L.K.,Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology | Osbrink W.L.A.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Ross S.A.,University of Mississippi
Organic Letters | Year: 2011

Two new polyacetylene thiophenes, echinopsacetylenes A and B (1 and 2), were isolated from the roots of Echinops transiliensis. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses and chemical transformations. Echinopsacetylenes A (1) is the first natural product possessing an α-terthienyl moiety covalently linked with another thiophene moiety. Echinopsacetylenes B (2) is the first natural thiophene conjugated with a fatty acid moiety. Echinopsacetylene A (1) showed toxicity against the Formosoan subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus). © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source

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