Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology

Timiryazev, Kazakhstan

Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology

Timiryazev, Kazakhstan
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Terletskaya N.,Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology | Kurmanbayeva M.,Al-Farabi Kazakh National University
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2017

There were studied the anatomic parameters of leaves of 10-day-old seedlings of 7 different species of wheat after 72 hours of drought or salt stress and identified key areas of adaptation juvenile leaf tissue to adverse environmental factors. To detect differences between species and between groups of species differing in ploidy level there were identified anatomical features of the structure of each of the leaves of the studied species, grown under normal conditions and under the action of osmotic and salt stress. There were studied anatomical parameters of inner and external surface of the leaf. It was revealed that osmotic stress has an impact on the studied parameters of leaves of all the studied species. Analyzing the data, we can speak of a high adaptive capacity of tetraploid wheat species T. dicoccum Shuebl., T. polonicum L. and T. aethiopicum Jakubz. virtually all considered the anatomical parameters of the leaves. The results of this study show that indicators such as the increase in stress dimensions of protective and mechanical tissue and the mesophyll appear to be good criteria for selection of stress resistant forms of wheat. © 2017, Pakistan Botanical Society. All rights reserved.

Turuspekov Y.,Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology | Ormanbekova D.,Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology | Rsaliev A.,Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems | Abugalieva S.,Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology
BMC Plant Biology | Year: 2016

Background: Stem rust (SR) is one of the most economically devastating barley diseases in Kazakhstan, and in some years it causes up to 50 % of yield losses. Routine conventional breeding for resistance to stem rust is almost always in progress in all Kazakhstan breeding stations. However, molecular marker based approach towards new SR resistance genes identification and relevant marker-assisted selection had never been employed in Kazakhstan yet. In this study, as a preliminary step the GWAS (genome-wide association study) mapping was applied in attempt to identify reliable SNP markers and quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with resistance to SR. Results: Barley collection of 92 commercial cultivars and promising lines was genotyped using a high-throughput single nucleotide polymorphism (9,000 SNP) Illumina iSelect array. 6,970 SNPs out of 9,000 total were polymorphic and scorable. 5,050 SNPs out of 6,970 passed filtering threshold and were used for association mapping (AM). All 92 accessions were phenotyped for resistance to SR by observing adult plants in artificially infected plots at the Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems in Dzhambul region of Kazakhstan. GLM analysis allowed the identification of 15 SNPs associated with the resistance at the heading time (HA) phase, and 2 SNPs at the seed's milky-waxy maturity (SM) phase. However, after application of 5 % Bonferroni multiple test correction, only 2 SNPs at the HA stage on the same position of chromosome 6H can be claimed as reliable markers for SR resistance. The MLM analysis after the Bonferroni correction did not reveal any associations in this study, although distribution lines in the quantile-quantile (QQ) plot indicates that overcorrection in the test due to both Q and K matrices usage. Conclusions: Obtained data suggest that genome wide genotyping of 92 spring barley accessions from Kazakhstan with 9 K Illumina SNP array was highly efficient. Linkage disequilibrium based mapping approach allowed the identification of highly significant QTL for the SR resistance at the HA phase of growth on chromosome 6H. On the other hand, no significant QTL was detected at the SM phase, assuming that for a successful GWASmapping experiment a larger size population with more diverse genetic background should be tested. Obtained results provide additional information towards better understanding of SR resistance in barley. © 2015 Turuspekov et al.

Turuspekov Y.,Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology
Genetika | Year: 2013

Barley plays an important role in agricultural sector of Kazakhstan and it is grown in many different climate zones over 1.5 min hectares annually. Therefore development of optimal cultivars for specific environments is a major challenge for barley breeding community in Kazakhstan. One of the approaches to address this question is to test large collection of commercial cultivars and advanced lines over a number of environmental sites that reflect major spatial and temporal climate variations in the country. In this work 103 cultivars and advanced lines of spring barley bred in six different breeding stations of Kazakhstan were grown in different testing sites in seven regions over 2009-2011 years. The major tasks of this research were to evaluate genotype x x environment interactions and assess grain yield in associations with developmental stages of barley, such as heading date and seed maturation date. The results suggest that (i) heading and seed maturation dates are significantly correlated with grain yield in specific regions and may have opposite correlation indexes in response to environmental conditions; (ii) accessions of different bred origin vary in their ability to exhibit environmentally-dependent plastic responses; (iii) spatial variation was more important than temporal variation in GxE interactions; (iv) biplot analysis is effective approach in identification of best suitable and stable accessions for both broad and narrow environments. The obtained results are further contribution to understanding of complex mechanisms of genotype x environment interactions.

Volis S.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Ormanbekova D.,University of Bologna | Yermekbayev K.,Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology
Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2015

Species can adapt to new environmental conditions either through individual phenotypic plasticity, intraspecific genetic differentiation in adaptive traits, or both. Wild emmer wheat, Triticum dicoccoides, an annual grass with major distribution in Eastern Mediterranean region, is predicted to experience in the near future, as a result of global climate change, conditions more arid than in any part of the current species distribution. To understand the role of the above two means of adaptation, and the effect of population range position, we analyzed reaction norms, extent of plasticity, and phenotypic selection across two experimental environments of high and low water availability in two core and two peripheral populations of this species. We studied 12 quantitative traits, but focused primarily on the onset of reproduction and maternal investment, which are traits that are closely related to fitness and presumably involved in local adaptation in the studied species. We hypothesized that the population showing superior performance under novel environmental conditions will either be genetically differentiated in quantitative traits or exhibit higher phenotypic plasticity than the less successful populations. We found the core population K to be the most plastic in all three trait categories (phenology, reproductive traits, and fitness) and most successful among populations studied, in both experimental environments; at the same time, the core K population was clearly genetically differentiated from the two edge populations. Our results suggest that (1) two means of successful adaptation to new environmental conditions, phenotypic plasticity and adaptive genetic differentiation, are not mutually exclusive ways of achieving high adaptive ability; and (2) colonists from some core populations can be more successful in establishing beyond the current species range than colonists from the range extreme periphery with conditions seemingly closest to those in the new environment. Our results suggest that (1) two means of successful adaptation to new environmental conditions, phenotypic plasticity and adaptive genetic differentiation, are not mutually exclusive ways of achieving high adaptive ability; and (2) colonists from some core populations can be more successful in establishing beyond the current species range than colonists from the range extreme periphery with conditions seemingly closest to those in the new environment. © 2015 Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Rosler S.M.,Westfalische Wilhelms University MunsterCorrensstrasse 45Munster48149 Germany | Kramer K.,Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research | Finkemeier I.,Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research | Humpf H.-U.,Institute of Food Chemistry | Tudzynski B.,Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology
Molecular Microbiology | Year: 2016

Post-translational modification of histones is a crucial mode of transcriptional regulation in eukaryotes. A well-described acetylation modifier of certain lysine residues is the Spt-Ada-Gcn5 acetyltransferase (SAGA) complex assembled around the histone acetyltransferase Gcn5 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We identified and characterized the SAGA complex in the rice pathogen Fusarium fujikuroi, well-known for producing a large variety of secondary metabolites (SMs). By using a co-immunoprecipitation approach, almost all of the S. cerevisiae SAGA complex components have been identified, except for the ubiquitinating DUBm module and the chromodomain containing Chd1. Deletion of GCN5 led to impaired growth, loss of conidiation and alteration of SM biosynthesis. Furthermore, we show that Gcn5 is essential for the acetylation of several histone 3 lysines in F. fujikuroi, that is, H3K4, H3K9, H3K18 and H3K27. A genome-wide microarray analysis revealed differential expression of about 30% of the genome with an enrichment of genes involved in primary and secondary metabolism, transport and histone modification. HPLC-based analysis of known SMs revealed significant alterations in the Δgcn5 mutant. While most SM genes were activated by Gcn5 activity, the biosynthesis of the pigment bikaverin was strongly increased upon GCN5 deletion underlining the diverse roles of the SAGA complex in F. fujikuroi. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Efremova T.,RAS Institute of Cytology and Genetics | Arbuzova V.,RAS Institute of Cytology and Genetics | Leonova I.,RAS Institute of Cytology and Genetics | Makhmudova K.,Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology
Cereal Research Communications | Year: 2011

Two intervarietal substitution lines of common wheat cv. Sava bearing chromosome 5B from Saratovskaya 29 and Diamant 2 donors and two near-isogenic lines (NILs) of winter cv. Bezostaya 1 with the Vrn-B1 locus from the same donors were developed. Multiple allelism of the dominant Vrn-B1 locus was studied in these lines. It manifested itself as earing time variation in plants grown near Novosibirsk (West Siberia), Almaty (Kazakhstan), and in a greenhouse. One dominant allele, Vrn-B1S, having a stronger effect on earing time, was detected in Saratovskaya 29 and another, Vrn-B1Dm, in Diamant 2. The NILs and substitution lines are late-ripening. Lines with Vrn-B1S come to earing earlier than with Vrn-B1.

Nakano H.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Mamonov L.K.,Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology | Osbrink W.L.A.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Ross S.A.,University of Mississippi
Organic Letters | Year: 2011

Two new polyacetylene thiophenes, echinopsacetylenes A and B (1 and 2), were isolated from the roots of Echinops transiliensis. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses and chemical transformations. Echinopsacetylenes A (1) is the first natural product possessing an α-terthienyl moiety covalently linked with another thiophene moiety. Echinopsacetylenes B (2) is the first natural thiophene conjugated with a fatty acid moiety. Echinopsacetylene A (1) showed toxicity against the Formosoan subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus). © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Nurzhanova A.,Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology | Kalugin S.,Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology | Zhambakin K.,Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2013

In Kazakhstan, there is a problem of finding ways to clean local sites contaminated with pesticides. In particular, such sites are the deserted and destroyed storehouses where these pesticides were stored; existing storehouses do not fulfill sanitary standards. Phytoremediation is one potential method for reducing risk from these pesticides. Genetic heterogeneity of populations of wild and weedy species growing on pesticide-contaminated soil provides a source of plant species tolerant to these conditions. These plant species may be useful for phytoremediation applications. In 2008-2009 and 2011, we surveyed substances stored in 80 former pesticide storehouses in Kazakhstan (Almaty oblast) to demonstrate an inventory process needed to understand the obsolete pesticide problem throughout the country, and observed a total of 354. 7 t of obsolete pesticides. At the sites, we have found organochlorine pesticides residues in soil including metabolites of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane. Twenty-four of the storehouse sites showed pesticides concentrations in soil higher than maximum allowable concentration which is equal to 100 μg kg-1 in Kazakhstan. Seventeen pesticide-tolerant wild plant species were selected from colonizing plants that grew into/near the former storehouse's pesticides. The results have shown that colonizing plant annual and biannual species growing on soils polluted by pesticides possess ability to accumulate organochlorine pesticide residues and reduce pesticide concentrations in soil. Organochlorine pesticides taken up by the plants are distributed unevenly in different plant tissues. The main organ of organochlorine pesticide accumulation is the root system. The accumulation rate of organochlorine pesticides was found to be a specific characteristic of plant species and dependent on the degree of soil contamination. This information can be used for technology development of phytoremediation of pesticide-contaminated soils. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Volis S.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Ormanbekova D.,Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology | Yermekbayev K.,Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology | Song M.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Shulgina I.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Detecting local adaptation and its spatial scale is one of the most important questions of evolutionary biology. However, recognition of the effect of local selection can be challenging when there is considerable environmental variation across the distance at the whole species range. We analyzed patterns of local adaptation in emmer wheat, Triticum dicoccoides, at two spatial scales, small (inter-population distance less than one km) and large (inter-population distance more than 50 km) using several approaches. Plants originating from four distinct habitats at two geographic scales (cold edge, arid edge and two topographically dissimilar core locations) were reciprocally transplanted and their success over time was measured as 1) lifetime fitness in a year of planting, and 2) population growth four years after planting. In addition, we analyzed molecular (SSR) and quantitative trait variation and calculated the QST/FST ratio. No home advantage was detected at the small spatial scale. At the large spatial scale, home advantage was detected for the core population and the cold edge population in the year of introduction via measuring life-time plant performance. However, superior performance of the arid edge population in its own environment was evident only after several generations via measuring experimental population growth rate through genotyping with SSRs allowing counting the number of plants and seeds per introduced genotype per site. These results highlight the importance of multi-generation surveys of population growth rate in local adaptation testing. Despite predominant self-fertilization of T. dicoccoides and the associated high degree of structuring of genetic variation, the results of the QST - FST comparison were in general agreement with the pattern of local adaptation at the two spatial scales detected by reciprocal transplanting. © 2015 Volis et al.

Volis S.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Ormanbekova D.,Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology | Yermekbayev K.,Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology | Song M.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Shulgina I.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany
Heredity | Year: 2014

The adaptive potential of a population defines its importance for species survival in changing environmental conditions such as global climate change. Very few empirical studies have examined adaptive potential across species' ranges, namely, of edge vs core populations, and we are unaware of a study that has tested adaptive potential (namely, variation in adaptive traits) and measured performance of such populations in conditions not currently experienced by the species but expected in the future. Here we report the results of a Triticum dicoccoides population study that employed transplant experiments and analysis of quantitative trait variation. Two populations at the opposite edges of the species range (1) were locally adapted; (2) had lower adaptive potential (inferred from the extent of genetic quantitative trait variation) than the two core populations; and (3) were outperformed by the plants from the core population in the novel environment. The fact that plants from the species arid edge performed worse than plants from the more mesic core in extreme drought conditions beyond the present climatic envelope of the species implies that usage of peripheral populations for conservation purposes must be based on intensive sampling of among-population variation. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

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