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Purvis O.W.,University of Exeter | Williamson B.J.,University of Exeter | Spiro B.,Natural History Museum in London | Udachin V.,Russian Academy of Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Geological Society Special Publication | Year: 2013

The aim of this paper is to showcase the use of lichens in environmental forensics from an assessment of atmospheric deposition in and around the Cu smelter and former mining town of Karabash, Ural Mountains of Russia. Hypogymnia physodes was collected on its bark substrate in July 2001 from a 'reference' site (c. 25 km SWof Karabash) and transplanted to 10 stations along an approximately 60 km SSW-NNE transect centred on Karabash. Transplants were collected after 2 and 3 month exposure periods. The elemental compositions of Hypogymnia and potential sources of particulates in the study area (smelter blast furnace and converter dusts, wastes, tailings, road dusts, metallurgical slags and top soils) were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and quadrupole ICP mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the Pb isotope compositions of the lichens and smelter dusts by multicollector ICP-MS. Particulates on lichen surfaces were analysed by scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX). The method of lichen transplantation, combined with multi-element and surface particle elemental analysis, high-precision Pb isotope ratio determinations and modelling, was shown to be useful for the tracing of the smelter signal, and components from different smelter processes, for more than 25 km from Karabash town. The lichen monitoring methodology is discrete and comparatively low cost, enabling atmospheric deposition from natural and anthropogenic sources to be determined over short (>3 month) periods, and is therefore a valuable qualitative tool for environmental forensics. © The Geological Society of London 2013.

Orlova M.V.,Tomsk State University | Kshnyasev I.A.,Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology | Orlov O.L.,Ural Federal University | Zhigalin A.V.,Tomsk State University
Vestnik Zoologii | Year: 2015

We investigated density dynamics of three bat fl ies species (Diptera, Nycteribiidae): Penicillidia monoceros Speiser, 1900, Nycteribia quasiocellata (Th eodor, 1966), Basilia rybini (Hurka, 1969) parasitized on two host species: pond bat, Myotis dasycneme (Boie, 1825), and eastern water bat, Myotis petax Hollister, 1912. Females of M. dasycneme have 3.4 (95 % CI 1.4-8.3) times higher odds of being infested, and in 2.4 (1.5-3.7) times higher average number of P. monoceros than males. Similarly, females of M. petax have 1.7 (1.2-2.4) times higher density of N. quasiocellata and/ or B. rybini. We hypothesized an existence of host-sex-recognition mechanism in bat fl ies, providing it fi ne "ecological profi t" due to sex-biased dispersal among adult host during wintering and the chance to infested a host off spring later (in summer). The decrease (due to mortality or emigration) in density of bat fl ies can be described as simple harmonic or S-shaped curve, and its "step" apparently corresponds to time of host pairing. © 2015 M. V. Orlova et al.

Leontyev D.V.,Kharkov Zooveterinary Academy | Fefelov K.A.,Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology
Mycotaxon | Year: 2012

Tubifera applanata sp. nov. is proposed to validate Tubulifera applanata nom. inval. The species diagnosis and some notes on its morphology are provided. At 0.40-0.65 mm diam., individual sporothecae are somewhat larger than in T. ferruginosa and T. microsperma and smaller than those in T. casparyi. Circular ornamentations on the inner peridial surface in T. applanata are larger than previously noted, reaching a size up to 2.9 μm. © 2012. Mycotaxon, Ltd.

Hellmann L.,Swiss Federal Institute of forest | Hellmann L.,Oeschger Center for Climate Change Research | Tegel W.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Kirdyanov A.V.,VN Sukachev Institute of Forest | And 13 more authors.
Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research | Year: 2015

Recent findings indicated spruce from North America and larch from eastern Siberia to be the dominating tree species of Arctic driftwood throughout the Holocene. However, changes in source region forest and river characteristics, as well as ocean current dynamics and sea ice extent likely influence its spatiotemporal composition. Here, we present 2556 driftwood samples from Greenland, Iceland, Svalbard, and the Faroe Islands. A total of 498 out of 969 Pinus sylvestris ring width series were cross-dated at the catchment level against a network of Eurasian boreal reference chronologies. The central Siberian Yenisei and Angara Rivers account for 91% of all dated pines, with their outermost rings dating between 1804 and 1999. Intensified logging and timber rafting along the Yenisei and Angara in the mid-20th century, together with high discharge rates, explain the vast quantity of material from this region and its temporal peak ca. 1960. Based on the combined application of wood-anatomical and dendrochronological techniques on a well-replicated data set, our results question the assumption that Arctic driftwood mainly consists of millennial-old larch and spruce. Nevertheless, data from other species and regions, together with longer boreal reference chronologies, are needed for generating reliable proxy archives at the interface of marine and terrestrial environments. © 2015 Regents of the University of Colorado.

Rudaya N.,Novosibirsk State University | Protopopov A.,Sakha Academy of science Yakutia | Trofimova S.,Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology | Plotnikov V.,Sakha Academy of science Yakutia | Zhilich S.,Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography
Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology | Year: 2015

In August 2010, a well-preserved Mammuthus primigenius carcass was found along the coast of Oyogos Yar in the region of the Laptev Sea and the mummy was nicknamed 'Yuka'. Frozen sediment samples from the area of skull condyles were collected for pollen and plant macrofossil analyses. The results from the palaeobotanical investigation confirmed that the Yuka mammoth lived during the optimum of the Kargin Interstadial (MIS3). The burial place of the mammoth could have been a small shallow freshwater pond with either stagnant or slowly moving water. The vegetation of the Oyogos Yar in MIS3 optimum was probably represented by zonal tundra-steppe combined with mesic-xeric meadows. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

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