Hagedorn F.,Swiss Federal Institute of forest |
Shiyatov S.G.,Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology |
Mazepa V.S.,Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology |
Devi N.M.,Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology |
And 8 more authors.
Global Change Biology | Year: 2014
High-altitude treelines are temperature-limited vegetation boundaries, but little quantitative evidence exists about the impact of climate change on treelines in untouched areas of Russia. Here, we estimated how forest-tundra ecotones have changed during the last century along the Ural mountains. In the South, North, Sub-Polar, and Polar Urals, we compared 450 historical and recent photographs and determined the ages of 11 100 trees along 16 altitudinal gradients. In these four regions, boundaries of open and closed forests (crown covers above 20% and 40%) expanded upwards by 4 to 8 m in altitude per decade. Results strongly suggest that snow was an important driver for these forest advances: (i) Winter precipitation has increased substantially throughout the Urals (~7 mm decade-1), which corresponds to almost a doubling in the Polar Urals, while summer temperatures have only changed slightly (~0.05 °C decade-1). (ii) There was a positive correlation between canopy cover, snow height and soil temperatures, suggesting that an increasing canopy cover promotes snow accumulation and, hence, a more favorable microclimate. (iii) Tree age analysis showed that forest expansion mainly began around the year 1900 on concave wind-sheltered slopes with thick snow covers, while it started in the 1950s and 1970s on slopes with shallower snow covers. (iv) During the 20th century, dominant growth forms of trees have changed from multistemmed trees, resulting from harsh winter conditions, to single-stemmed trees. While 87%, 31%, and 93% of stems appearing before 1950 were from multistemmed trees in the South, North and Polar Urals, more than 95% of the younger trees had a single stem. Currently, there is a high density of seedlings and saplings in the forest-tundra ecotone, indicating that forest expansion is ongoing and that alpine tundra vegetation will disappear from most mountains of the South and North Urals where treeline is already close to the highest peaks. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hellmann L.,Swiss Federal Institute of forest |
Hellmann L.,Oeschger Center for Climate Change Research |
Tegel W.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg |
Kirdyanov A.V.,Vn Sukachev Institute Of Forest |
And 13 more authors.
Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research | Year: 2015
Recent findings indicated spruce from North America and larch from eastern Siberia to be the dominating tree species of Arctic driftwood throughout the Holocene. However, changes in source region forest and river characteristics, as well as ocean current dynamics and sea ice extent likely influence its spatiotemporal composition. Here, we present 2556 driftwood samples from Greenland, Iceland, Svalbard, and the Faroe Islands. A total of 498 out of 969 Pinus sylvestris ring width series were cross-dated at the catchment level against a network of Eurasian boreal reference chronologies. The central Siberian Yenisei and Angara Rivers account for 91% of all dated pines, with their outermost rings dating between 1804 and 1999. Intensified logging and timber rafting along the Yenisei and Angara in the mid-20th century, together with high discharge rates, explain the vast quantity of material from this region and its temporal peak ca. 1960. Based on the combined application of wood-anatomical and dendrochronological techniques on a well-replicated data set, our results question the assumption that Arctic driftwood mainly consists of millennial-old larch and spruce. Nevertheless, data from other species and regions, together with longer boreal reference chronologies, are needed for generating reliable proxy archives at the interface of marine and terrestrial environments. © 2015 Regents of the University of Colorado.
PubMed | University of Greifswald, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Swiss Federal Institute of forest and Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology
Type: | Journal: Oecologia | Year: 2016
Climate warming is shifting the elevational boundary between forests and tundra upwards, but the related belowground responses are poorly understood. In the pristine South and Polar Urals with shifts of the treeline ecotone documented by historical photographs, we investigated fine root dynamics and production of extramatrical mycorrhizal mycelia (EMM) along four elevational transects reaching from the closed forest to the treeless tundra. In addition, we analysed elevational differences in climate and vegetation structure, and excavated trees to estimate related changes in the partitioning between below- and aboveground biomass. Fine root biomass of trees (<2mm) increased by 13-79% with elevation, paralleled by a 35-72% increase in ground vegetation fine roots from the closed forest to the tundra. During the first year of decomposition, mass loss of fine root litter from different vegetation types was greater at lower elevations in the forest-tundra ecotone. The ratio between fine roots of trees and stem biomass largely increased with elevation in both regions, but these increases were not accompanied by a distinct production of EMM. Production of EMM, however, increased with the presence of ectomycorrhizal trees at the transition from the tundra to the forest. Our results imply that the recorded upward expansion of forest into former tundra in the Ural Mountains by 4-8m per decade is decreasing the partitioning of plant biomass to fine roots. They further suggest that climate-driven forest advances will alter EMM production rates with potential feedbacks on soil carbon and nutrient cycling in these ecosystems.
Hantemirov R.M.,Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology |
Gorlanova L.A.,Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology |
Surkov A.Yu.,Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology |
Shiyatov S.G.,Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology
Izvestiya Akademii Nauk, Seriya Geograficheskaya | Year: 2011
On the base of analyses of anomalous structures in tree rings of Larix Sibirica and Picea obovata the reconstruction of climatic extremes is made for Yamal for the last 4100 years. Comparison of data for Yamal with the literature data for another regions show that nearly in half cases they are correlated with the similar extremes in another Earth regions, i.e. they have a global scale. The most significant of them took place in 420 B.C., 536, 543, 627, 903, 940, 1151, 1259, 1300, 1453, 1466, 1585, 1601, 1609, 1642, 1699, 1783, 1818, 1867, 1872 A.D. both in the West and in the East Hemispheres. Large volcanoes eruptions in many cases can be considered the reasons of revealed extreme summer cooling in global scale.
Purvis O.W.,University of Exeter |
Williamson B.J.,University of Exeter |
Spiro B.,Natural History Museum in London |
Udachin V.,Russian Academy of Sciences |
And 2 more authors.
Geological Society Special Publication | Year: 2013
The aim of this paper is to showcase the use of lichens in environmental forensics from an assessment of atmospheric deposition in and around the Cu smelter and former mining town of Karabash, Ural Mountains of Russia. Hypogymnia physodes was collected on its bark substrate in July 2001 from a 'reference' site (c. 25 km SWof Karabash) and transplanted to 10 stations along an approximately 60 km SSW-NNE transect centred on Karabash. Transplants were collected after 2 and 3 month exposure periods. The elemental compositions of Hypogymnia and potential sources of particulates in the study area (smelter blast furnace and converter dusts, wastes, tailings, road dusts, metallurgical slags and top soils) were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and quadrupole ICP mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the Pb isotope compositions of the lichens and smelter dusts by multicollector ICP-MS. Particulates on lichen surfaces were analysed by scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX). The method of lichen transplantation, combined with multi-element and surface particle elemental analysis, high-precision Pb isotope ratio determinations and modelling, was shown to be useful for the tracing of the smelter signal, and components from different smelter processes, for more than 25 km from Karabash town. The lichen monitoring methodology is discrete and comparatively low cost, enabling atmospheric deposition from natural and anthropogenic sources to be determined over short (>3 month) periods, and is therefore a valuable qualitative tool for environmental forensics. © The Geological Society of London 2013.
Orlova M.V.,Tomsk State University |
Kshnyasev I.A.,Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology |
Orlov O.L.,Ural Federal University |
Zhigalin A.V.,Tomsk State University
Vestnik Zoologii | Year: 2015
We investigated density dynamics of three bat fl ies species (Diptera, Nycteribiidae): Penicillidia monoceros Speiser, 1900, Nycteribia quasiocellata (Th eodor, 1966), Basilia rybini (Hurka, 1969) parasitized on two host species: pond bat, Myotis dasycneme (Boie, 1825), and eastern water bat, Myotis petax Hollister, 1912. Females of M. dasycneme have 3.4 (95 % CI 1.4-8.3) times higher odds of being infested, and in 2.4 (1.5-3.7) times higher average number of P. monoceros than males. Similarly, females of M. petax have 1.7 (1.2-2.4) times higher density of N. quasiocellata and/ or B. rybini. We hypothesized an existence of host-sex-recognition mechanism in bat fl ies, providing it fi ne "ecological profi t" due to sex-biased dispersal among adult host during wintering and the chance to infested a host off spring later (in summer). The decrease (due to mortality or emigration) in density of bat fl ies can be described as simple harmonic or S-shaped curve, and its "step" apparently corresponds to time of host pairing. © 2015 M. V. Orlova et al.
Rudaya N.,Novosibirsk State University |
Protopopov A.,Sakha Academy of science Yakutia |
Trofimova S.,Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology |
Plotnikov V.,Sakha Academy of science Yakutia |
Zhilich S.,Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography
Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology | Year: 2015
In August 2010, a well-preserved Mammuthus primigenius carcass was found along the coast of Oyogos Yar in the region of the Laptev Sea and the mummy was nicknamed 'Yuka'. Frozen sediment samples from the area of skull condyles were collected for pollen and plant macrofossil analyses. The results from the palaeobotanical investigation confirmed that the Yuka mammoth lived during the optimum of the Kargin Interstadial (MIS3). The burial place of the mammoth could have been a small shallow freshwater pond with either stagnant or slowly moving water. The vegetation of the Oyogos Yar in MIS3 optimum was probably represented by zonal tundra-steppe combined with mesic-xeric meadows. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Leontyev D.V.,Kharkov Zooveterinary Academy |
Fefelov K.A.,Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology
Mycotaxon | Year: 2012
Tubifera applanata sp. nov. is proposed to validate Tubulifera applanata nom. inval. The species diagnosis and some notes on its morphology are provided. At 0.40-0.65 mm diam., individual sporothecae are somewhat larger than in T. ferruginosa and T. microsperma and smaller than those in T. casparyi. Circular ornamentations on the inner peridial surface in T. applanata are larger than previously noted, reaching a size up to 2.9 μm. © 2012. Mycotaxon, Ltd.