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PubMed | University of Belgrade, Institute of Physiology CAS, Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Charles University and Czech Institute of Organic Chemistry And Biochemistry
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2015

N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) mediate synaptic plasticity, and their dysfunction is implicated in multiple brain disorders. NMDARs can be allosterically modulated by numerous compounds, including endogenous neurosteroid pregnanolone sulfate. Here, we identify the molecular basis of the use-dependent and voltage-independent inhibitory effect of neurosteroids on NMDAR responses. The site of action is located at the extracellular vestibule of the receptors ion channel pore and is accessible after receptor activation. Mutations in the extracellular vestibule in the SYTANLAAF motif disrupt the inhibitory effect of negatively charged steroids. In contrast, positively charged steroids inhibit mutated NMDAR responses in a voltage-dependent manner. These results, in combination with molecular modeling, characterize structure details of the open configuration of the NMDAR channel. Our results provide a unique opportunity for the development of new therapeutic neurosteroid-based ligands to treat diseases associated with dysfunction of the glutamate system.


PubMed | Institute of Physiology CAS and Charles University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Experimental neurology | Year: 2016

AMPA receptors (AMPARs) are responsible for fast excitatory neurotransmission, and their prolonged activation can result in the generation and spread of epileptic seizures. At early stages of postnatal development, the majority of AMPARs are permeable to both Na(+) and Ca(2+) ions. This permeability, which increases neuronal excitability, is due to the lack of the GluA2 subunit, encoded by the GRIA2A gene, and/or the presence of an unedited GluA2 subunit Q/R site (glutamine instead of arginine). Lithium chloride- and pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (LiCl/Pilo-SE) in rodents represents a model of severe seizures that result in development of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The aim of this study was to determine how LiCl/Pilo-SE induced early in life (at postnatal day 12; P12) alters normal expression of the GRIA2A gene and GluA2 protein. SE was interrupted by an injection of paraldehyde (Para). Control groups were 1) nave animals, and 2) siblings of SE rats receiving only LiCl and paraldehyde (LiCl/Para). The expression profile of GRIA2A mRNA was determined via qPCR, and GluA2 protein levels were measured by western blotting. The analysis was performed at 3h (protein levels), and then 3-, 6-, 13-, and 60days, following LiCl/Pilo-SE or LiCl/Para injection (i.e. at P12, P15, P18, P25, P72 respectively). Six different brain regions were analyzed: frontal (CXFR), parietal (CXPAR), and occipital (CXOC) cortex, dorsal (HD) and ventral (HV) hippocampus, and thalamus (TH). There was a significant increase in GRIA2A mRNA expression in the CXFR, CXPAR, and CXOC of P18 SE animals. In CXFR and HD, increased expression of GluA2 AMPAR subunit protein was detected, as well as a surge in GRIA2A mRNA and GluA2 protein expression especially at P18. In HD the surge was detected not only during development (P18), but also later in life (P72). Since high levels of GluA2 can be neuroprotective (by decreasing Ca(2+) permeability), our data suggest that the neocortex and dorsal hippocampus are able to activate endogenous antiepileptic mechanisms. A marked decrease in the overall expression of GluA2 protein in the HV in the LiCl/Pilo-SE and LiCl/Para rats, suggests that the HV is predisposed to excitotoxicity, not only during development, but even in adulthood. Interestingly, LiCl in combination with paraldehyde can also strongly alter the normal ontogeny of GRIA2A mRNA as well as GluA2 subunit protein expression.


PubMed | Institute of Physiology CAS, Institute of Experimental Medicine CAS, Institute of Biotechnology CAS and University of Iowa
Type: | Journal: Molecular neurobiology | Year: 2016

The programming of cell fate by transcription factors requires precise regulation of their time and level of expression. The LIM-homeodomain transcription factor Islet1 (Isl1) is involved in cell-fate specification of motor neurons, and it may play a similar role in the inner ear. In order to study its role in the regulation of vestibulo-motor development, we investigated a transgenic mouse expressing Isl1 under the Pax2 promoter control (Tg


Randakova A.,Institute of Physiology CAS | Dolejsi E.,Institute of Physiology CAS | Rudajev V.,Institute of Physiology CAS | Zimcik P.,Institute of Physiology CAS | And 3 more authors.
Pharmacological Research | Year: 2015

We mutated key amino acids of the human variant of the M1 muscarinic receptor that target ligand binding, receptor activation, and receptor-G protein interaction. We compared the effects of these mutations on the action of two atypical M1 functionally preferring agonists (N-desmethylclozapine and xanomeline) and two classical non-selective orthosteric agonists (carbachol and oxotremorine). Mutations of D105 in the orthosteric binding site and mutation of D99 located out of the orthosteric binding site decreased affinity of all tested agonists that was translated as a decrease in potency in accumulation of inositol phosphates and intracellular calcium mobilization. Mutation of D105 decreased the potency of the atypical agonist xanomeline more than that of the classical agonists carbachol and oxotremorine. Mutation of the residues involved in receptor activation (D71) and coupling to G-proteins (R123) completely abolished the functional responses to both classical and atypical agonists. Our data show that both classical and atypical agonists activate hM1 receptors by the same molecular switch that involves D71 in the second transmembrane helix. The principal difference among the studied agonists is rather in the way they interact with D105 in the orthosteric binding site. Furthermore, our data demonstrate a key role of D105 in xanomeline wash-resistant binding and persistent activation of hM1 by wash-resistant xanomeline. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Dolejsi E.,Institute of Physiology CAS | Liraz O.,Tel Aviv University | Rudajev V.,Institute of Physiology CAS | Zimcik P.,Institute of Physiology CAS | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Neurochemistry | Year: 2016

Apolipoprotein E4 (apoE4) is the most prevalent genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. We utilized apoE4-targeted replacement mice (approved by the Tel Aviv University Animal Care Committee) to investigate whether cholinergic dysfunction, which increases during aging and is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease, is accentuated by apoE4. This revealed that levels of the pre-synaptic cholinergic marker, vesicular acetylcholine transporter in the hippocampus and the corresponding electrically evoked release of acetylcholine, are similar in 4-month-old apoE4 and apolipoprotein E3 (apoE3) mice. Both parameters decrease with age. This decrease is, however, significantly more pronounced in the apoE4 mice. The levels of cholinacetyltransferase (ChAT), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) were similar in the hippocampus of young apoE4 and apoE3 mice and decreased during aging. For ChAT, this decrease was similar in the apoE4 and apoE3 mice, whereas it was more pronounced in the apoE4 mice, regarding their corresponding AChE and BuChE levels. The level of muscarinic receptors was higher in the apoE4 than in the apoE3 mice at 4 months and increased to similar levels with age. However, the relative representation of the M1 receptor subtype decreased during aging in apoE4 mice. These results demonstrate impairment of the evoked release of acetylcholine in hippocampus by apoE4 in 12-month-old mice but not in 4-month-old mice. The levels of ChAT and the extent of the M2 receptor-mediated autoregulation of ACh release were similar in the adult mice, suggesting that the apoE4-related inhibition of hippocampal ACh release in these mice is not driven by these parameters. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Society for Neurochemistry.


PubMed | Institute of Physiology CAS and Tel Aviv University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of neurochemistry | Year: 2016

Apolipoprotein E4 (apoE4) is the most prevalent genetic risk factor for Alzheimers disease. We utilized apoE4-targeted replacement mice (approved by the Tel Aviv University Animal Care Committee) to investigate whether cholinergic dysfunction, which increases during aging and is a hallmark of Alzheimers disease, is accentuated by apoE4. This revealed that levels of the pre-synaptic cholinergic marker, vesicular acetylcholine transporter in the hippocampus and the corresponding electrically evoked release of acetylcholine, are similar in 4-month-old apoE4 and apolipoprotein E3 (apoE3) mice. Both parameters decrease with age. This decrease is, however, significantly more pronounced in the apoE4 mice. The levels of cholinacetyltransferase (ChAT), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) were similar in the hippocampus of young apoE4 and apoE3 mice and decreased during aging. For ChAT, this decrease was similar in the apoE4 and apoE3 mice, whereas it was more pronounced in the apoE4 mice, regarding their corresponding AChE and BuChE levels. The level of muscarinic receptors was higher in the apoE4 than in the apoE3 mice at 4months and increased to similar levels with age. However, the relative representation of the M1 receptor subtype decreased during aging in apoE4 mice. These results demonstrate impairment of the evoked release of acetylcholine in hippocampus by apoE4 in 12-month-old mice but not in 4-month-old mice. The levels of ChAT and the extent of the M2 receptor-mediated autoregulation of ACh release were similar in the adult mice, suggesting that the apoE4-related inhibition of hippocampal ACh release in these mice is not driven by these parameters. Evoked ACh release from hippocampal and cortical slices is similar in 4-month-old apoE4 and apoE3 mice but is specifically and significantly reduced in hippocampus, but not cortex, of 12-month-old apoE4 mice. This effect is accompanied by decreased VAChT levels. These findings show that the hipocampal cholinergic nerve terminals are specifically affected by apoE4 and that this effect is age dependent.


PubMed | Institute of Physiology CAS
Type: | Journal: Neurobiology of learning and memory | Year: 2017

Although animals often learn and monitor the spatial properties of relevant moving objects such as conspecifics and predators to properly organize their own spatial behavior, the underlying brain substrate has received little attention and hence remains elusive. Because the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) participates in conflict monitoring and effort-based decision making, and ACC neurons respond to objects in the environment, it may also play a role in the monitoring of moving cues and exerting the appropriate spatial response. We used a robot avoidance task in which a rat had to maintain at least a 25cm distance from a small programmable robot to avoid a foot shock. In successive sessions, we trained ten Long Evans male rats to avoid a fast-moving robot (4 cm/s), a stationary robot, and a slow-moving robot (1 cm/s). In each condition, the ACC was transiently inactivated by bilateral injections of muscimol in the penultimate session and a control saline injection was given in the last session. Compared to the corresponding saline session, ACC-inactivated rats received more shocks when tested in the fast-moving condition, but not in the stationary or slow robot conditions. Furthermore, ACC-inactivated rats less frequently responded to an approaching robot with appropriate escape responses although their response to shock stimuli remained preserved. Since we observed no effect on slow or stationary robot avoidance, we conclude that the ACC may exert cognitive efforts for monitoring dynamic updating of the position of an object, a role complementary to the dorsal hippocampus.


Schizophrenia is a devastating disorder affecting 1 % of the worlds population. An important role in the study of this disease is played by animal models. Since there is evidence that acute psychotic episodes can have consequences on later cognitive functioning, the present study has investigated the effects of a single systemic application of higher doses of (+)MK-801 (3 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg) to adult male Long-Evans rats from the Institutes breeding colony on delayed testing in the active place avoidance task with reversal on the Carousel (a rotating arena). Besides significant mortality due to the injections, a disruption of procedural functions in active place avoidance, after the dose 5 mg/kg was observed. It was concluded that Long-Evans rats from our breeding colony do not represent a suitable biomodel for studying the effects of single high-dose NMDA antagonists.


PubMed | Institute of Physiology CAS
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Current Alzheimer research | Year: 2015

Transgenic APPswe/PS1dE9 mice modeling Alzheimers disease demonstrate ongoing accumulation of -amyloid fragments resulting in formation of amyloid plaques that starts at the age of 4-5 months. Buildup of -amyloid fragments is accompanied by impairment of muscarinic transmission that becomes detectable at this age, well before the appearance of cognitive deficits that manifest around the age of 12 months. We have recently demonstrated that long-term feeding of trangenic mice with specific isocaloric fish oil-based diets improves specific behavioral parameters. Now we report on the influence of short-term feeding (3 weeks) of three isocaloric diets supplemented with Fortasyn (containing fish oil and ingredients supporting membrane renewal), the plant sterol stigmasterol together with fish oil, and stigmasterol alone on markers of cholinergic neurotransmission in the hippocampus of 5-month-old transgenic mice and their wild-type littermates. Transgenic mice fed normal diet demostrated increase in ChAT activity and attenuation of carbachol-stimulated GTP-(35)S binding compared to wild-type mice. None of the tested diets compared to control diet influenced the activities of ChAT, AChE, BuChE, muscarinic receptor density or carbachol-stimulated GTP-(35)S binding in wild-type mice. In contrast, all experimental diets increased the potency of carbachol in stimulating GTP-(35)S binding in trangenic mice to the level found in wild-type animals. Only the Fortasyn diet increased markers of cholinergic synapses in transgenic mice. Our data demonstrate that even short-term feeding of transgenic mice with chow containing specific lipid-based dietary supplements can influence markers of cholinergic synapses and rectify impaired muscarinic signal transduction that develops in transgenic mice.


PubMed | Institute of Physiology CAS
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Physiological research | Year: 2015

It has been suggested that increase in acute nitric oxide (NO) or cyclic guanosine monophosphate production may be involved in cardioprotection induced by chronic hypoxia (CH). We studied the effect of NO donor molsidomine and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor sildenafil on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats adapted to CH. Male Wistar rats were exposed to continuous hypoxia in a normobaric chamber (10 % O(2), 4 weeks). Rats received either saline, molsidomine (10 mg/kg body weight, i.v.) or sildenafil (0.7 mg/kg body weight, i.v.) 30 min before ischemia. Control rats were kept under normoxia and treated in a corresponding manner. Adaptation to CH increased the myocardial ischemic tolerance. Acute treatment with either molsidomine or sildenafil significantly reduced infarct size in normoxic rats and further enhanced cardioprotection induced by CH. However, the cardioprotective effect of CH on I/R injury was not additive to the cardioprotection provided by the drugs.

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