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Taracha E.,Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology | Kaniuga E.,Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology | Chrapusta S.J.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Maciejak P.,Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology | And 5 more authors.
Neuropharmacology | Year: 2014

Behavioral sensitization and tolerance to repetitive exposure to addictive drugs are commonly used for the assessment of the early stages of the drug dependence progress in animals. The orchestra of tools for studying the progress of drug dependence in laboratory rodents has been considerably enriched in the 1980s by the introduction of ultrasonic vocalization (USV) detection and characterization. However, the relationship between the results of this technology and those of traditional behavioral tests is not clear. We attempted to elucidate some of the respective ambiguities by comparing the effects of an intermittent amphetamine treatment, which was aimed both at the induction of sensitization and tolerance to this drug and at testing the persistence of these effects, on the locomotor activity and 50-kHz USV responses to both the drug and the context of drug exposure in adult male rats showing diverging susceptibility for sensitization to amphetamine. Categorization of the rats into low and high responders/callers based on sensitization of their frequency-modulated 50-kHz USV responsiveness showed some correspondence with conditioned place preference effects, but not with responses to amphetamine. The study showed distinct changes in the rate and latency of the frequency-modulated 50-kHz USV responses to repetitive amphetamine treatment, which were reminiscent of classical behavioral signs of sensitization and tolerance. These results show the utility of the appetitive USV for monitoring of early phases of complex processes leading to drug dependence. However, USV, locomotor activity and conditioned place preference seem to reflect different aspects of these phenomena. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Skarzynski H.,Institute of Physiology and Pathology of Hearing | Skarzynski H.,World Hearing Center
Cochlear Implants International | Year: 2014

Treatment of the partial deafness is a great challenge in terms of preserving the preoperative hearing and complementing this hearing ability with an implant. It concerns the situations when hearing in low frequency range is normal or fully functional and it is only necessary to complement it electrically in the medium and high frequency ranges. The first in the world surgery during which an existing normal hearing had been electrically complemented was performed in 2002. It has shown a fresh direction in treatment of various partial hearing impairments. This achievement was possible due to our previous works on hearing preservation in the group of patients with marginal residual hearing. The long term observation (almost 15 years) and large material allow us to present the strategy of the partial deafness treatment and its results. During the ESPCI conference in Warsaw in 2009, PDT concept was announced, indicating groups for Acoustic Stimulation (AS) and Electric Stimulation (ES). ES patients can be divided on the following groups: Electrical Complement (PDT-EC), Electric Acoustic Stimulation (PDT-EAS), Electric Modified Stimulation (PDT-EMS), Electric Stimulation (PDT-ES). The differentiation between the groups is very important, because the groups are not equal and their goals in treatment and therapy are different. Concluding we can say that hearing was preserved in over 94% of cases, however, the results differ between the groups. Implementation of the partial deafness treatment (PDT) is connected with development and elaboration of special rehabilitation program for the specific groups of patients. © W. S. Maney & Son Ltd 2014. Source

Gifford R.H.,Vanderbilt University | Dorman M.F.,Arizona State University | Skarzynski H.,Institute of Physiology and Pathology of Hearing | Lorens A.,Institute of Physiology and Pathology of Hearing | And 4 more authors.
Ear and Hearing | Year: 2013

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the benefit of having preserved acoustic hearing in the implanted ear for speech recognition in complex listening environments. Design: The present study included a within-subjects, repeated-measures design including 21 English-speaking and 17 Polish-speaking cochlear implant (CI) recipients with preserved acoustic hearing in the implanted ear. The patients were implanted with electrodes that varied in insertion depth from 10 to 31 mm. Mean preoperative low-frequency thresholds (average of 125, 250, and 500 Hz) in the implanted ear were 39.3 and 23.4 dB HL for the English- and Polish-speaking participants, respectively. In one condition, speech perception was assessed in an eight-loudspeaker environment in which the speech signals were presented from one loudspeaker and restaurant noise was presented from all loudspeakers. In another condition, the signals were presented in a simulation of a reverberant environment with a reverberation time of 0.6 sec. The response measures included speech reception thresholds (SRTs) and percent correct sentence understanding for two test conditions: CI plus low-frequency hearing in the contralateral ear (bimodal condition) and CI plus low-frequency hearing in both ears (best-aided condition). A subset of six English-speaking listeners were also assessed on measures of interaural time difference thresholds for a 250-Hz signal. Results: Small, but significant, improvements in performance (1.7-2.1 dB and 6-10 percentage points) were found for the best-aided condition versus the bimodal condition. Postoperative thresholds in the implanted ear were correlated with the degree of electric and acoustic stimulation (EAS) benefit for speech recognition in diffuse noise. There was no reliable relationship among measures of audiometric threshold in the implanted ear nor elevation in threshold after surgery and improvement in speech understanding in reverberation. There was a significant correlation between interaural time difference threshold at 250 Hz and EAS-related benefit for the adaptive speech reception threshold. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that (1) preserved low-frequency hearing improves speech understanding for CI recipients, (2) testing in complex listening environments, in which binaural timing cues differ for signal and noise, may best demonstrate the value of having two ears with low-frequency acoustic hearing, and (3) preservation of binaural timing cues, although poorer than observed for individuals with normal hearing, is possible after unilateral cochlear implantation with hearing preservation and is associated with EAS beneft. The results of this study demonstrate significant communicative benefit for hearing preservation in the implanted ear and provide support for the expansion of CI criteria to include individuals with low-frequency thresholds in even the normal to near-normal range. Copyright © 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Skarzynski H.,Institute of Physiology and Pathology of Hearing | Piotrowska A.,Institute of Physiology and Pathology of Hearing
Medical Science Monitor | Year: 2012

Background: Communication is an integral part of human behaviour. Communication disorders are associated mainly with impairment in hearing, vision, and/or speech, which influences the ability to receive, comprehend, produce, and express verbal, nonverbal, and graphic information. When unrecognized and unmanaged, these very often "invisible" conditions can have a significant detrimental effect on a child's development, affecting educational, social, and psychological progress. Material/Methods: A panel of experts discussed the screening of pre-school and school-age children for problems with hearing, vision, and speech during the 10 th Congress of the European Federation of Audiology Societies (EFAS), held in Warsaw, Poland, on 22 June, 2011. Results: The European Consensus Statement on Hearing, Vision, and Speech Screening in Pre-School and School-Age Children was the result of the scientific discussions. It was endorsed by experts in audiology, otolaryngology, phoniatry, ophthalmology, and speech language pathology from throughout Europe*. Key elements of the consensus, as described herein, are: 1) defining the role of screening programmes in the identification and treatment of communication disorders; 2) identifying the target population; 3) promoting general awareness about the consequences of communication disorders; 4) recognizing the need for a quality control system in screening programmes; 5) encouraging cooperation among European countries to provide a high level of public health services for the prevention, identification, and treatment of communication disorders. Conclusions: The European Consensus Statement on Hearing, Vision, and Speech Screening in Pre-School and School-Age Children will encourage the appropriate authorities of the various countries involved to initiate screening for communication disorders in pre-school and school-age children. © Med Sci Monit, 2012. Source

Skarzynski H.,Institute of Physiology and Pathology of Hearing | Podskarbi-Fayette R.,Institute of Physiology and Pathology of Hearing
Acta Oto-Laryngologica | Year: 2010

Conclusions: Success in conservation of residual hearing after cochlear implantation has benefited patients with high levels of residual low frequency hearing who were not previously considered for conventional cochlear implantation. Technological developments play a key role in minimizing trauma to the cochlea during placement of electrodes. Objectives: The Nucleus® Straight Research Array (SRA) has been designed and developed as a collaboration project between our centre and Cochlear Ltd with the objective of minimizing trauma to the cochlea with insertion of the electrode via the round window. Methods: We studied 22 fresh or thawed fresh-frozen human temporal bones implanted by one otosurgeon with the SRA electrode with a standard round window technique used for cochlear implantation. An additional four temporal bones were implanted with a 'Standard' straight electrode using the same surgical technique. All insertions were performed in the scala tympani of the cochlea. Results: Evaluation of insertion depth and position of the electrode array inside the cochlea showed little or no evidence of significant intracochlear trauma in the vast majority of bones implanted with the SRA. Handling of the electrode carrier was reported as very satisfactory, which was evident from low resistance to insertion in the majority of cases. Source

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