Institute of Physiology and Experimental Medicine

Chennai, India

Institute of Physiology and Experimental Medicine

Chennai, India
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Niveditha P.,Stanley Medical College | Lovie B.T.,Stanley Medical College | Padma K.,Institute of Physiology and Experimental Medicine | Celine D.,Stanley Medical College | And 3 more authors.
Biomedicine (India) | Year: 2016

Introduction and Aim: Parkinson's disease (PD) is recognized as the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. While the motor symptoms predominate the clinical picture of PD, presentation of non-motor symptoms which are commonly seen in PD patients without any of the cardinal signs may be considered as a part of the disease spectrum. This study was done to find out the clinical utility of Brainstem Evoked Potentials testing as an investigatory tool in diagnosing sub-clinical involvement of auditory pathway in patients with Idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Materials and Methods: 30 Idiopathic Parkinson's disease patients of age ranging between 34-73 years and 30 age-matched healthy controls participated in the study. The absolute latencies and inter-peak latencies were measured. The data were analyzed using independent students t -Test. P value <0.05 was considered significant. Results: Wave V latency, inter-peak latencies I-V and III-V were found to be significantly prolonged in the PD patients group. Conclusion: Abnormality in Brainstem evoked response audiometry (BERA) may be due to derangements at the level of inferior colliculus which is revealed by the wave V latency prolongation. Hence BERA can be used as a screening test to assess the functional integrity of auditory pathway in Parkinson's disease patients.

Lovie B.T.,Stanley Medical College | Niveditha P.,Stanley Medical College | Padma K.,Institute of Physiology and Experimental Medicine | Viji D.,Stanley Medical College | And 3 more authors.
Biomedicine (India) | Year: 2016

Introduction and Aim: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder with Reproductive, Metabolic and Psychological features in young females. Leptin reduces appetite and enhances energy expenditure, by increasing overall sympathetic nerve activity. Patients with PCOS are commonly obese, insulin resistant and hyperinsulinemic. As leptin is associated with obesity and insulin action, it might have a role in PCOS. The aim of this study is to compare serum leptin levels in women with PCOS and normal controls and to correlate with Body Mass Index (BMI). Materials and Methods: Thirty females in the age group of 20 to 35 years with PCOS diagnosed as per the Rotterdam's criteria, and thirty women with normal ovulatory cycles were selected. BMI was calculated, and serum leptin levels were assessed using Leptin Elisa kit. Independent Student t-Test was employed. P value <0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The mean BMI of PCOS (28.66±3.00) was significantly higher than the control group (26.93± 3.20). The mean serum leptin levels of the PCOS group (17.26±6.07ng/ml) was significantly higher than the control group (8.03±7.43ng/ml).There was a significant positive correlation between the serum leptin levels and the BMI in the controls but no significant correlation in PCOS group. Conclusion: Serum leptin levels in PCOS women is significantly higher irrespective of BMI which suggests that factors other than body fat are responsible for the elevated leptin levels in PCOS women.

Anbuselvi M.K.S.,Stanley Medical College | Vishwanatha R.B.,Madha Medical College | Padma K.,Institute of Physiology and Experimental Medicine
Biomedicine (India) | Year: 2016

Introduction and Aim: Vestibular evoked myogenic potential is an otolith-mediated short latency evoked potential recorded from tonically contracted sternocleidomastoid muscle in response to intense auditory click delivered via headphones. The emergence of VEMPs has created new opportunities to gain insight into the functional status of the saccule and inferior vestibular nerve. It has been accepted as a reliable method of assessing otolith function. To establish age related changes in vestibular evoked myogenic potential in normal subjects. Materials and Methods: 100 healthy subjects of age groups between 17 and 70 years without the previous history of otological and neurological diseases were involved in the study. Subjects were categorized into three groups; (20-40yrs),(41-60yrs),(61 and above). Auditory click stimulus with an intensity of 100dB Ahl, 500Hz presented to both ears via headphone at a stimulation rate of 5/sec and averaged for 200 presentations. The vestibular evoked myogenic potential response in waveforms p13, n23 latency, and amplitude were recorded from tonically contracted sternocleidomastoid muscle by stimulation of both ears simultaneously(binaural) and unilaterally(monoaural ). The averaged waveforms of VEMP was analyzed, and data were evaluated using SPSS-15. Results: There was no significant difference in VEMP response parameters (latency, amplitude or IAD ratio) between gender and also between ears (left vs right). The mean inter-Amplitude difference (IAD) ratios between both ears were in the range of 0-45%. A significant decline in the mean amplitude is seen in the older age above 60 years (p < 0.005). The highly significant negative correlation found between the age factor and P13-N23 amplitude. Conclusion: A significant age related decline was seen in VEMP amplitude in the older group when compared to the younger group, while latency and interamplitude ratios remained consistent across age groups. The decline in mean amplitude P13-N23 of VEMP in older age is due to the physiological degenerative changes that involve saccule, inferior vestibular nerve and the neural pathway as age advances.

Maheswari K.U.,Karpaga Vinayaga Institute of Medical science | Sathyanarayanan G.,Institute of Physiology and Experimental Medicine | Sheeladevi R.,Dr Alm Postgraduate Institute Of Basic Medical Science
Biomedicine (India) | Year: 2014

Materials and Method: Aqueous extracts of Triphala and its individual fruits were prepared and its antioxidant activity was studied by scavenging assays using DPPH, superoxide anion and nitric oxide by checking for the absorbance in spectrophotometer. Lower absorbance of the reaction mixture indicates higher free radical scavenging activity. The data were compared using SPSS server version 10 and the values are expressed as Mean ±SD.Result: Triphala and its individual components showed effective antioxidant activity from 20ng/ml concentration onwards for DPPH assay and no significant statistical changes seen for superoxide assay. Only 25μg/ml of T. chebula was effective for nitric oxide assay.Conclusion: From these reports it can be concluded that all the components in Triphala is having the ability to quench free radicals.Introduction: Antioxidants become companions to the unpaired electrons of free radicals, thus minimizing the threat of molecular, cellular and tissue damage caused by free radicals. Inspite of various reports about Triphala's antioxidant capability, a drug of equal parts of three medicinal plants namely Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica and Emblica officinalis, no clear in-vitro study for understanding the antioxidant role of its individual components is available. This lacuna forms the basis for this study.Aim: The aim is to find out the anti oxidant potential of Tripala

Muralikrishnan K.,Stanley Medical College | Balasubramanian K.,Stanley Medical College | Rao B.V.,Institute of Physiology and Experimental Medicine
Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology | Year: 2011

Hypertension (HT) is a major silent disease affecting young people because of their hereditary and modern lifestyles. Target organ damages occur before overt hypertension is diagnosed. Many offspring of HT parents show early changes in their cardiovascular autonomic functions. Heart rate variability (HRV) provides a window to understand the cardiac autonomic balance. This study was designed to quantify and to compare the HRV among the normotensive young male offspring without history of parenteral hypertension & diabetic (control group, n=25, age 20.8±2.4, BMI 24.4±3.1) with parenteral history of hypertension & non diabetic (study group n=25, age 19.7±1.9, 24.05±3.5). Blood pressure, heart rate (HR), indices of short term HRV during supine rest and quiet standing, HR variation during timed controlled deep breathing was compared between the two groups. There were significant difference in low frequency (LF) power, HF power, total power. LF and HF expressed also in normalized units at rest and standing. In time domain standard deviation of normal to normal RR interval (SDNN) at supine rest and standing were significant. Respiratory sinus arrthymia (RSA), HF in normalized units, deep breathing difference (BDD) and the ratio of maximum RR to minimum RR were also significant in the control group than study group. In the present study there was an increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic activity in the study group. These findings are an early marker of cardiovascular autonomic impairment in subjects with parenteral history of hypertension.

Karthikkeyan K.,Institute of Physiology and Experimental Medicine | Padma K.,Institute of Physiology and Experimental Medicine | Vishwanatha Rao B.,Institute of Physiology and Experimental Medicine
Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology | Year: 2015

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), a progressive and partially reversible disease, has drawn world-wide attention for its moderate prevalence rate and causing central and peripheral neuropathy. Considering its severity in causing visual pathway impairment, the present investigation was carried out to find out the functional integrity of the visual pathway through visual evoked potentials (VEP) and to determine the factors influencing the condition in COPD patients. A total of 30 COPD patients of both sexes, classified according to the severity of the disease based on spirometric indices, were subjected to VEP testing and series of wave forms were measured and compared with equal number of control subjects. The latency of N75 and P100 were prolonged (P<0.01) and the P100 amplitude was reduced significantly (P<0.01) in COPD patients. Thus, the influence of COPD causing the optic neuropathy is apparent from the significant VEP changes. Non-invasive procedure can possibly be utilized as a routine screening test for COPD patients for better medical care. © 2015, Association of Physiologists and Pharmacologists of India. All Rights Reserved.

Muralikrishnan K.,Stanley Medical College | Balasubramanian K.,Stanley Medical College | Jawahar Ali S.M.,Stanley Medical College | Vishwanatha Rao B.,Institute of Physiology and Experimental Medicine
Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology | Year: 2013

Obesity has been shown to affect cardiovascular function. Heart rate variability (HRV) has been an accepted method of measuring cardiovascular autonomic function. The aim of the study is to evaluate the impact of obesity on HRV using Poincaré plot (POP) analysis. A finding of sympathovagal imbalance in pre-obese adults in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) could provide important diagnostic information about early subclinical autonomic dysfunction in obesity. Thirty one obese (BMI 26.84±2.47) adult males (25.42±7.86 years) were compared with 31 normal subjects (25.38±4.61 years). In all participants, anthropometric and blood pressure (BP) measurements were performed. After rest at supine position for 5 minutes, they were asked to do control deep breathing for 1 minute. HRV was measured in terms of POP analysis. Differences in Resting heart rate (RHR) (P≤0.025), Pulse pressure (PP) (P≤0.048), SD1 (P≤0.042) and SD2 (P≤0.039) of the POP between the two groups were significant. Correlation between Body mass index (BMI) and (PP) (p=0.19); SD1 (p=0.47) and SD2 (p=0.39) of the POP were significant in obese groups. Obesity is related to sympathovagal imbalance characterized by depressed parasympathetic tone and increased sympathetic activity. Nonlinear methods like POP permit simple assessment of autonomic function, despite measuring different aspects of HRV.

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