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Scholz-Ahrens K.E.,Institute of Physiology and Biochemistry of Nutrition | Adolphi B.,Institute of Physiology and Biochemistry of Nutrition | Rochat F.,Nestle | Barclay D.V.,Nestle | And 4 more authors.
NFS Journal

Background: Defined prebiotics were shown to improve calcium balance and diminish bone loss. However, the effect of their combination with probiotics on gut ecology and bone metabolism has not yet been studied. We investigated whether the combination of a probiotic with a defined microbial strain results in improved bone mineralization, and whether this effect is associated with changes in gut ecology. Methods: Eighty ovariectomized adult rats were allocated to five groups: group 1, sham-operated (SHAM); group 2-5, ovariectomized (OVX). Semipurified diets containing 0.7% calcium and 0.5% phosphorus were fed for 16 weeks, group 1 and group 2 got no supplements, group 3 (PRO) was supplemented with a potential probiotic (Lactobacillus acidophilus NCC90), group 4 (PRE) with prebiotics (oligofructose + acacia gum) and group 5 (SYN) with synbiotics (probiotics + prebiotics). Results: Ovariectomy increased body weight and reduced bone weight, content of calcium, phosphorus and ash of bone, bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and bone structure. This was indicated by lower trabecular bone area, trabecular perimeter, and connectivity but higher epiphyseal breadth. Ovariectomy elevated the jejunal pH. The probiotic alone did not significantly affect bone mineralization and gut ecology. Rats on prebiotics had significantly higher amounts of cecal contents and lower pH in cecal and colonic contents. Their calcium balance tended to be increased (p < 0.1). Synbiotics reduced pH in different intestinal segments, significantly in cecum. They stimulated most the colonic absorption surface as indicated by colon weight. Only feeding synbiotics significantly prevented OVX-induced loss of calcium content in lumbar vertebrae (mg) with final values (mean ± SD) of 44.44 ± 2.94 (SHAM), 41.20 ± 4.59 (OVX), 41.63 ± 3.78 (PRO), 43.42 ± 3.07 (PRE), and 44.68 ± 2.28 (SYN). This effect was associated with higher counts of bifidobacteria in the short-term and Bacteroides in the long-term, and with a tendency for lower BAP with 128.7 ± 28.5 U/L vs. 155.3 ± 28.1 U/L in OVX (p < 0.1). Conclusion: SYN exerted a synergistic effect on bone mineralization, presumably due to changes in gut microbiota and ecology associated with large bowel digesta weight (most likely reflecting microbial mass) and with large bowel weight (reflecting absorptive area), while bone turnover tended to be reduced as indicated by BAP. © 2016 The Authors. Source

De Vrese M.,Institute of Physiology and Biochemistry of Nutrition | Kristen H.,Institute of Physiology and Biochemistry of Nutrition | Rautenberg P.,Institute for Medical Microbiology and Virology | Laue C.,Center for Biotechnology and Nutrition | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Research

To investigate matrix-specifity of probiotic effects and particularly of the reduction of antibiotics-associated diarrhea, a controlled, randomized, double-blind study was performed, in which 88 Helicobacter pylori-infected but otherwise healthy subjects were given for eight weeks either a) a probiotic fruit yoghurt "mild" containing Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 plus Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12, n=30), b) the same product but pasteurized after fermentation (n=29) or c) milk acidified with lactic acid (control, n=29). During week five, a Helicobacter eradication therapy was performed. Helicobacter activity was measured via 13C-2-urea breath tests and antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and other gastrointestinal complaints were recorded by validated questionnaires. In intervention group a, b and c the mean number of days with diarrhoea was 4, 10 and 10 (P<0.05), the frequency of episodes 17%, 7% and 27% (n.s.), and the change in total symptoms score before antibiotics treatment was -1.4±1.1, -1.2±1.1, 2.6±1.1 points/four weeks (P<0.05). All milk products decreased Helicobacter activity by 18 to 45% without significant differences between groups. The observed decrease in Hel. pylori activity seems to be not or not only due to probiotic bacteria but (rather) to components of acidified milk (most probably lactic acid). Fruit-yogurt-like fermented milk products with living probiotic bacteria significantly shorten the duration of antibiotics-associated diarrhoea and improve gastrointestinal complaints. Fruit yogurt-like fermented milk is a matrix suitable for probiotic bacteria. © 2011 Proprietors of Journal of Dairy Research. Source

Rubin D.,Institute of Physiology and Biochemistry of Nutrition | Rubin D.,University of Kiel | Helwig U.,Institute of Physiology and Biochemistry of Nutrition | Helwig U.,University of Kiel | And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Endocrinology

Objective: Postprandial (pp) lipid metabolism is associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. In young men, pp triglycerides (TGs) are more strongly associated with traits of metabolic syndrome (MS) than fasting TGs.We established a cohort of middle-aged men selected for traits of MS and pp lipid metabolism to determine if fasting TGs or pp TGs are more closely related to MS. Research design and methods: A total of 1558 men were characterized for MS. A total of 755 men underwent an oral metabolic tolerance test consisting of a standardized high-fat meal and an oral glucose tolerance test. Blood samples were drawn in the fasting state and hourly until 9 h to determine pp TGs and free fatty acids. Glucose and insulin were analyzed until 5 h pp. Results: In the overall cohort, 329 subjects (21.1%) had a complete MS based on the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, and 650 subjects (41.7%) had a complete MS based on the International Diabetes Federation criteria. The association of pp TGs with MS parameters was not stronger than the association of fasting TGs with them. Pp TGs were independently associated with β-cell function. Conclusions: Pp TGs did not show a higher correlation with MS traits than fasting TGs. This finding is probably due to the high incidence of overweight subjects in this middle-aged cohort. © 2010 European Society of Endocrinology. Source

Brader L.,Aarhus University Hospital | Holm L.,Aarhus University Hospital | Mortensen L.,Aarhus University Hospital | Thomsen C.,Aarhus University Hospital | And 6 more authors.
Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases

Background and aims: Exaggerated and prolonged postprandial lipemia is potentially atherogenic and associated with type 2 diabetes. Limited data exist regarding the influence of dietary protein on postprandial lipemia in type 2 diabetes. We investigated, over 8-h, the acute effects of casein alone or in combination with carbohydrate on postprandial lipid and incretin responses to a fat-rich meal in type 2 diabetes. Methods and results: Eleven type 2 diabetic subjects ingested four test meals in random order: an energy-free soup plus 80 g of fat (control-meal); control-meal plus 45 g carbohydrates (CHO-meal); control-meal plus 45 g of casein (PRO-meal); and PRO-meal plus 45 g carbohydrates (CHO + PRO-meal). Triglyceride and retinyl palmitate responses were measured in plasma and in a chylomicron-rich and chylomicron-poor fraction. We found no significant differences in triglyceride responses to PRO- and CHO + PRO-meal compared to the control-meal. However, the addition of casein to the CHO-meal reduced the raised triglyceride response in the chylomicron-rich fraction. Retinyl palmitate responses did not differ significantly between meals in the chylomicron-rich fraction, whereas the PRO-meal increased retinyl palmitate in the chylomicron-poor fraction. PRO- and PRO + CHO-meal increased insulin and glucagon compared to the control-meal. PRO + CHO-meal increased the glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide response while no change in glucagon-like peptide-1 responses was detected. Conclusions: The data presented suggest that casein per se did not modulate the postprandial triglyceride response in type 2 diabetes. When added to carbohydrate, casein suppressed the triglyceride response in the chylomicron-rich fraction, increased insulin and glucagon but did not affect the incretin responses. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

de Vrese M.,Institute of Physiology and Biochemistry of Nutrition | Kristen H.,Institute of Physiology and Biochemistry of Nutrition | Laue C.,Institute of Physiology and Biochemistry of Nutrition | Schrezenmeir J.,Institute of Physiology and Biochemistry of Nutrition
International Dairy Journal

To investigate whether and how consumption of goats' milk cheese affects Helicobacter pylori activity in the stomach of infected subjects, a randomized, controlled and blind study was performed. Sixty volunteers consumed 4 × 25 g day -1 "Gouda-type" cheese for 3 weeks, prepared from either goats' or cows' milk. The goats' milk cheese was rich in short- and medium-chain fatty acids. Immediately before the start and thereafter every seven days, H. pylori activity was measured by the 13C-urea breath test, and gastrointestinal well-being was recorded weekly by validated questionnaires. Neither goats' nor cows' milk cheese had any significant effect on H. pylori activity. Ingestion of both cheeses improved gastrointestinal well-being but had no effect on stool parameters. The difference of the total symptoms score was significant between day 0 and 21 in each dietary groups, but not between the goats' and cows' milk cheese. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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