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Tatarinov F.A.,RAS A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution | Cienciala E.,IFER Institute of Forest Ecosystem Research | Vopenka P.,IFER Institute of Forest Ecosystem Research | Avilov V.,Institute of Physicochemical and Biological Problems of Soil Science
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2011

The simulation of forest production until 2100 under different environmental scenarios and current management practices was performed using a process-based model BIOME-BGC previously parameterized for the main Central-European tree species: spruce, pine, beech and oak and adapted to include forest management practices. Climatic scenario HadCM3 used in the simulations was taken from the IPCC database created within the 3rd Assessment Report. It was combined with a scenario of CO 2 concentration development and a scenario of N deposition. The control scenario considered no changes of climatic characteristics, CO 2 concentration and N deposition. Simulation experiment was performed for the test region - South Bohemia - using a 1km×1km grid. The actual data on the regional forest cover were aggregated for each grid cell in such a way that each cell represented an even-aged single-dominant species stand or non-forested area, and a standard management scenario depending on the stand age and species was applied to each cell. The effect of environmental variables was estimated as the difference of simulated carbon pools and fluxes in 2050 under environmental changes and under control scenario.The model simulation for the period to 2050 with only climate change under constant CO 2 concentration and N deposition indicated a small decrease of NPP (median values by species reached -0.9 to -1.7% for different species), NBP (-0.3 to -1.7%) and vegetation carbon (-0.3 to -0.7%), whereas soil C slightly increased. Separate increase of N deposition gave small positive effect on carbon pools (0.8-2.9% for wood C and about 0.5% for soil C) and more expressed effect on carbon fluxes (1.8-4.3% for NPP and 1.0-9.7% for NBP). Separate increase of CO 2 concentration lead to 0.6-2.4% increase of wood C pool and 0.1-0.5% increase of soil C. The positive effects of CO 2 concentration and N deposition were more pronounced for coniferous than for deciduous stands.Replacement of 0.5% of coniferous plantations every year by natural broadleaved stands evoked 10.5% of increase of wood carbon pool due to higher wood density of beech and oak compared to spruce and pine, but slightly decreased soil and litter carbon pools. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source


Kirillova I.V.,National Alliance of Shidlovskiy Ice Age | Zanina O.G.,Institute of Physicochemical and Biological Problems of Soil Science | Chernova O.F.,RAS Severtsov Institute of Ecology | Lapteva E.G.,Russian Academy of Sciences | And 6 more authors.
Quaternary Research (United States) | Year: 2015

An incomplete carcass of an extinct bison, Bison ex gr. priscus, was discovered in 2012 in the mouth of the Rauchua River (69°30'N, 166°49'E), Chukotka. The carcass included the rump with two hind limbs, ribs, and large flap of hide from the abdomen and sides, several vertebrae, bones of the forelimbs and anterior autopodia, stomach with its contents, and wool. The limb bones are relatively gracile, which is unusual in bison, and a SEM study of the hair microstructure suggests higher insulating capacity than in extant members of the genus. Additionally, mitochondrial DNA analyses indicate that the Rauchua bison belonged to a distinct and previously unidentified lineage of steppe bison. Two radiocarbon dates suggest a Holocene age for the bison: a traditional 14C date provided an estimate of 8030±70 14C yr BP (SPb-743) and an AMS radiocarbon date provided an age of 9497±92 14C yr BP (AA101271). These dates make this the youngest known bison from Chukotka. Analysis of stomach contents revealed a diet of herbaceous plants (meadow grasses and sedges) and shrubs, suggesting that the early Holocene vegetation near the mouth of the Rauchua River was similar to that of the present day: tundra-associated vegetation with undersized plants. © 2015 University of Washington. Source


Kirillova I.V.,National Alliance of Shidlovskiy Ice Age | Argant J.,Aix - Marseille University | Lapteva E.G.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Korona O.M.,Russian Academy of Sciences | And 9 more authors.
Quaternary International | Year: 2015

Mammoth feces from northern Yakutia and western Chukotka were investigated in a multidisciplinary study. Radiocarbon dating of the Yakutian mammoth dung yielded ca 42 ka BP and the age of the feces from Chukotka is older than 45 ka BP. The two sites are located about 15,000 km from each other and have a different geological setting. Most plant remains in the dung of both mammoths were grasses and sedges, with some other herbs and dwarf shrubs in addition. The pastures were situated in varying treeless shrubby landscapes: herb-grass associations of meadows, wormwood and shrub biotopes on slopes, in valleys and at watersheds. Besides plant remains and hairs of large herbivore mammals, the feces also contained feathers of Anseriformes, fragments of beetles and flies, ephippia of Cladocera, diatoms, remains of testate amoebae and ascospores of coprophilous fungi from pasture cenoses. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA. Source


Peters S.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Borisov A.V.,Institute of Physicochemical and Biological Problems of Soil Science | Reinhold S.,German Archaeological Institute | Korobov D.S.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Thiemeyer H.,Goethe University Frankfurt
Quaternary International | Year: 2014

Anthropogenic impact in prehistoric settlements results in a considerable alteration of soil microbial communities depending on intensity and the character of human activities. This paper present a case study from a Late Bronze Age settlement located in the high-mountain part of the North Caucasus (Russia). The site represents a community, which presumably specialized in intensive livestock herding. Samples from settlement soils anthropogenically affected in the past and unmodified background soils were taken and studied. Of particular interest were divergences in soil microbial communities, expected to indicate different activities and animal presence in the site. The total microbial biomass, their respiratory activity, the biomass of fungal mycelium and the proportion of dark-colored hyphae were determined, as well as the quantitative state of keratinophilic fungi.The microbial characteristics vary considerably within the settlement locations, and contrast sharply with the reference soils exterior to the archaeological site. The cultural layer has higher percentage of active metabolizing microorganisms, whereas the total microbiological biomass is considerably lower than in the unmodified soils from the surroundings. A determining factor to transform the respiratory activity of microorganisms, in both qualitative and quantitative aspects, is the composition of the organic material which has been accumulated in the ground as a result of various human activities in the past. The cultural layers contain microorganisms, which can be reactivated when glucose is added. In the anthropogenically unmodified soils surrounding the prehistoric settlement, in contrast, 97% of the cells cannot be reactivated. Based on the mycological characteristics of the studied cultural layers and unmodified soils, in particular with regard to the total biomass of fungi mycelium, the dark pigmented fungal biomass, and the existence of keratin-decomposing soil fungi, detailed information about activity areas and their specific usage is given. The use of bio-indicators allows not only diagnosing anthropogenic impact in soils as such, but also significantly complements description of cultural layers of activity areas in the settlement, specifying their purpose. The paper presents the microbiological analyses applied and, moreover, discusses the potential of this approach as a non-destructive prospecting method on archaeological sites. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA. Source


Bartholomeus H.,Wageningen University | Schaepman-Strub G.,University of Zurich | Blok D.,Wageningen University | Sofronov R.,Institute of Biological Problems of the Cryolithozone | Udaltsov S.,Institute of Physicochemical and Biological Problems of Soil Science
Applied and Environmental Soil Science | Year: 2012

Predicted global warming will be most pronounced in the Arctic and will severely affect permafrost environments. Due to its large spatial extent and large stocks of soil organic carbon, changes to organic matter decomposition rates and associated carbon fluxes in Arctic permafrost soils will significantly impact the global carbon cycle. We explore the potential of soil spectroscopy to estimate soil carbon properties and investigate the relation between soil properties and vegetation composition. Soil samples are collected in Siberia, and vegetation descriptions are made at each sample point. First, laboratory-determined soil properties are related to the spectral reflectance of wet and dried samples using partial least squares regression (PLSR) and stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR). SMLR, using selected wavelengths related with C and N, yields high calibration accuracies for C and N. PLSR yields a good prediction model for K and a moderate model for pH. Using these models, soil properties are determined for a larger number of samples, and soil properties are related to plant species composition. This analysis shows that variation of soil properties is large within vegetation classes, but vegetation composition can be used for qualitative estimation of soil properties. © 2012 Harm Bartholomeus et al. Source

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