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Saint Petersburg, Russia

Ilkovich Y.M.,Saint Petersburg State University | Ariel B.M.,Institute of Phthysiopulmonology | Novikova L.N.,Saint Petersburg State University | Bazhanov A.A.,Saint Petersburg State University | And 2 more authors.
Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science

Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis is a rare disease with unknown etiology that is due to an abnormal surfactant metabolism. Retrospective analysis of a consecutive series of 68 patients with PAP who were seen at Pulmonology Clinic of Pavlov State Medical University from 1977-2013 was performed. The mean time since first abnormalities were found until diagnosis establishment was 34 months. During that time, most patients were treated with antibiotics, tuberculostatics, glucocorticoids, and immunosupressants. The most effective PAP treatment method was found to be whole lung lavage procedure: 82% of patients showed improvement after its implementation. Delayed diagnosis and incorrect administration of antibiotics, tuberculostatics etc. reduce the probability of a long symptom-free period after lung lavage and spontaneous resolution of the disease. © 2014 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc. Source

Risin S.A.,University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston | Hunter R.L.,University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston | Kobak M.,Institute of Phthysiopulmonology | Ariel B.,Institute of Phthysiopulmonology | And 5 more authors.
Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science

Surfactants have the potential to overcome natural resistance of MTB to antibiotics which is mediated by barriers that impede the penetration of drugs to their targets. A major component of this barrier is trehalose dimycolate (TDM) which surrounds the bacteria with a thick lipid shield. In this study dodecyl maltoside (DDM) was evaluated for this purpose. This surfactant is an excellent cellular permeabilizing agent with associated low toxicity. The administration of the surfactant as an aerosol into the lungs of the infected mice achieved a 5-10 times enhancement of the isoniazid (INH) treatment gauged by the reduction of the colony forming units. This study also established proof of principle that surfactants alone applied as an aerosol can reduce the bacteria count in lungs infected with MTB. The potential of the surfactant in the therapy of human cavitary TB was also investigated using a surgically removed lung from a patient with extreme drug resistant MTB (XDR-TB). A cavity in this lung was flushed with DDM solution ex-vivo. The procedure readily removed the bacteria, excessive amounts of TDM and necrotic tissue from the cavity. These studies demonstrate that DDM can disrupt the layers of TDM and free embedded MTB and, consequently, surfactants have promise as a proficient modality for the treatment of pulmonary MTB. © 2014 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc. Source

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