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Jia Y.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica | Jia Y.,Institute of Pharmaceutical Research | Fu Z.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica | Fu Z.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | And 6 more authors.
Chromatographia | Year: 2015

Timosaponin B-II (TB-II), a representative furostanol saponin in Rhizoma anemarrhenae, has been used as an emperor herb in many Chinese herbal formulas to treat diabetes and senile dementia. However, its metabolism and tissue distribution had not been investigated so far. In this work, a sensitive and specific high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method was applied for the identification of TB-II and its major metabolites in in-vivo and in-vitro samples. Rat urine, feces, plasma and tissues were collected after oral administration of TB-II at a single dose of 300 mg kg−1. Furthermore, TB-II was incubated in artificial gastric juice (AGJ) and artificial intestinal juice (AIJ). As a result, 19 metabolites were detected and identified by comparing their HPLC behavior and MSn spectra profile with those of the parent drug. Moreover, the structures of its five metabolites were identified by using the standards prepared by the acid hydrolysis of TB-II. In addition to the parent drug, 14, 12, 6, 1, 1 and 7 metabolites were detected in rat urine, feces, plasma, heart, kidney and liver, respectively, while no metabolites or the parent drug were found in rat brain, spleen and lung. Seven metabolites appeared in AIJ incubation samples, but the parent drug was absent. Nine metabolites along with the parent drug were observed in AGJ incubation samples. The biotransformation pathways of TB-II mainly included dehydration, deglycosylation, hydroxylation, oxidation and E-ring cleavage. This is the first comprehensive investigation of the in-vivo and in-vitro metabolism of TB-II. The result provided important information for further pharmacological research on TB-II. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Spremo-Potparevic B.,University of Belgrade | Zivkovic L.,University of Belgrade | Plecas-Solarovic B.,University of Belgrade | Bajic V.P.,Institute of Pharmaceutical Research
Archives of Biological Sciences | Year: 2011

Alzheimer's disease (AD), as the most common form of dementia, has for many years attracted the attention of researchers around the world, primarily because of the problems of reliable diagnostic methods that could help in the early detection of this devastating disease. One of the important aspects of genetic research related to AD is the analysis of chromosome instability which includes: aneuploidies of different chromosomes, telomere shortening and the phenomenon of premature centromere division (PCD). The aim of this study was to describe specific biomarkers in different types of cells as potential parameters for the diagnosis of AD in order to promptly recognize pre-symptomatic stages and prevent the development of disease and/or slow down its progression.

Plecas-Solarovic B.,University of Belgrade | Dlelic N.,University of Belgrade | Bajic V.,Institute of Pharmaceutical Research | Zivkovic L.,University of Belgrade | Spremo-Potparevic B.,University of Belgrade
Genetika | Year: 2014

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most frequent progressive neurodegenerative disorder in elderly associated with irreversible cognitive impairment and dementia. The vast majority of AD patients are sporadic (SAD) in which the disease develops after age of 65. Despite of century of research, we lack understanding of the SAD etiology and pathogenesis. Several hypotheses try to explain the main causes of brain degeneration in SAD, one of them assuming that genomic instability and the reentry of certain neurons into the incomplete cell cycle may be the pathogenic basis of the disease. Although the brain is the most affected organ in AD, numerous studies showed structural and functional alterations in peripheral tissues, suggesting that AD is a generalized systemic disorder. Diverse changes in peripheral cells from AD patients are described in literature including cell cycle aberration and chromosome instability, alterations in cell viability, proliferation and apoptosis, oxidative metabolism, amyloid precursor protein and amyloid β protein metabolism, and other cellular processes. The aim of this paper was to summarize and review the results of our investigations and the growing literature data concerning the multiple chromosomal alterations in peripheral cells of AD patients and to consider their possible role in the disease pathogenesis as well as the importance of such investigations.

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