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Chao P.-D.L.,China Medical University at Taichung | Shia C.-S.,Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry | Hou Y.-C.,China Medical University at Taichung | Juang S.-H.,China Medical University at Taichung | And 3 more authors.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine

San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang (SHXXT), a widely used Chinese herbal formula, consists of rhizomes of Rheum officinale, roots of Scutellaria baicalensis and rhizomes of Coptis chinesis. This study investigated the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of polyphenols in SHXXT, including baicalin, baicalein, wogonin, emodin, aloe-emodin, rhein and chrysophanol. The quantitation methods of SHXXT decoction and rat serum using high performance liquid chromatography were developed and validated in this study. After oral administration of SHXXT decoction to rats, the parent forms of various constituents and their conjugated metabolites in serum were determined before and after hydrolysis with β-glucuronidase and sulfatase. The results showed that only free form of rhein can be quantitated, whereas the parent forms of coptisine, palmatine, berberine, baicalein, wogonin, emodin, aloe-emodin and chrysophanol were not detected in serum. The glucuronides of baicalein, wogonin, emodin, aloe-emodin, rhein and chrysophanol were the predominant forms in bloodstream. In order to evaluate the in vivo antioxidant activity of SHXXT, the serum metabolite of SHXXT was prepared, characterized and followed by evaluation of the effect on AAPH-induced hemolysis. The results indicated that metabolites of SHXXT exhibited significant free radical scavenging activity. We suggest that biologists redirect their focus to the bioactivity of the conjugated metabolites of these polyphenols. Copyright © 2011 Chi-Sheng Shia et al. Source

Bateman A.,Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute | Agrawal S.,Institute of Bioinformatics and Applied Biotechnology IBAB | Agrawal S.,BioCOS Life science Private Ltd | Birney E.,European Bioinformatics Institute | And 28 more authors.

During the last decade there has been a great increase in the number of noncoding RNA genes identified, including new classes such as microRNAs and piRNAs. There is also a large growth in the amount of experimental characterization of these RNA components. Despite this growth in information, it is still difficult for researchers to access RNA data, because key data resources for noncoding RNAs have not yet been created. The most pressing omission is the lack of a comprehensive RNA sequence database, much like UniProt, which provides a comprehensive set of protein knowledge. In this article we propose the creation of a new open public resource that we term RNAcentral, which will contain a comprehensive collection of RNA sequences and fill an important gap in the provision of biomedical databases. We envision RNA researchers from all over the world joining a federated RNAcentral network, contributing specialized knowledge and databases. RNAcentral would centralize key data that are currently held across a variety of databases, allowing researchers instant access to a single, unified resource. This resource would facilitate the next generation of RNA research and help drive further discoveries, including those that improve food production and human and animal health. We encourage additional RNA database resources and research groups to join this effort. We aim to obtain international network funding to further this endeavor. Source

Jenkins D.,Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine | Caubit X.,Institut Universitaire de France | Dimovski A.,Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry | Matevska N.,Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry | And 6 more authors.
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation

Background. Congenital pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction (PUJO) affects 0.3 of human births. It may result from aberrant smooth muscle development in the renal pelvis, resulting in hydronephrosis. Mice that are null mutant for the Teashirt3 (Tshz3) gene exhibit congenital PUJO with defective smooth muscle differentiation and absent peristalsis in the proximal ureter.Methods. Given the phenotype of Tshz3 mutant mice, we considered that Teashirt genes, which code for a family of transcription factors, might represent candidate genes for human PUJO. To evaluate this possibility, we used in situ hydridization to analyse the three mammalian Tshz genes in mouse embryonic ureters and determined whether TSHZ3 was expressed in the human embryonic ureter. TSHZ2 and TSHZ3 were sequenced in index cases with non-syndromic PUJO.Results. Tshz2 and Tshz3 genes were detected in mouse ureters and TSHZ3 was expressed in the human embryonic renal pelvis. Direct sequencing of TSHZ2 and TSHZ3 did not identify any mutations in an initial cohort of 48 PUJO index cases, excluding these genes as a major cause of this condition. A polymorphic missense change (E469G) in TSHZ3 was identified at a residue highly conserved throughout evolution in all Teashirt proteins, although subsequently no significant difference between the E469G allele frequency in Albanian and Macedonian PUJO index cases (3.2) versus 633 control individuals (1.7) was found (P = 0.18).Conclusions. Mutations in TSHZ2 and TSHZ3 are not a major cause of PUJO, at least in Albanian and Macedonian populations. Expression of these genes in the human fetal ureter emphasizes the importance of analysing these genes in other groups of patients with renal tract malformations. Source

Thieme T.M.,Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry | Steri R.,Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry | Proschak E.,Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry | Paulke A.,Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry | And 2 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is involved in glucose and lipid homeostasis. PPARγ agonists are in clinical use for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Lately, a new class of selective PPARγ modulators (SPPARγMs) was developed, which are believed to show less side effects than full PPARγ agonists. We have previously shown that α-substitution of pirinixic acid, a moderate agonist of PPARα and PPARγ, leads to low micromolar active balanced dual agonists of PPARα and PPARγ. Herein we present modifications of pirinixic acid leading to subtype-selective PPARγ agonists and furthermore the development of a selective PPARγ modulator guided by molecular docking studies. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Shi H.-B.,Chemical Engineering College | Shi H.-B.,Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry | Hu W.-X.,Zhejiang University of Technology | Zhang W.-M.,Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry | Wu Y.-F.,Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Journal of Chemical Research

A series of 21 new tri- and tetra-cyclic thiosemicarbazone derivatives were prepared via the condensation of morpholine, piperazine or N-(4-methoxyphenyl)piperazine with seven methyl hydrazine-carbodithioate derivatives of 5-acetyl-2-arylamino-4-methylthiazoles under microwave irradiation. All compounds were tested for their cytotoxic activity in vitro against human gastric, lung and breast cancer cell lines. The results showed that some of the compounds displayed moderate anticancer activity. The most potent compound, a morpholinosubstituted analogue, exhibited significant activity against human breast cancer cells. Source

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