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Mohanty D.,OUAT | Jena R.,National Dairy Research Institute | Choudhury P.K.,National Dairy Research Institute | Pattnaik R.,KIIT University | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Food Properties

In recent decades, bioactive peptides have attracted increasing interest as health promoting functional foods. A variety of naturally formed bioactive peptides have been found in fermented dairy products such as yogurt, sour milk, and cheese. Initially these peptides are inactive within the sequence of the parent protein molecule and can be generated by gastrointestinal digestion of milk, fermentation of milk with proteolytic starter cultures, and/or hydrolysis by proteolytic enzymes. Milk derived peptides exert a number of health beneficial activities, even upon oral administration. Bioactive peptides have a great impact on major body systems including the digestive, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, diabetes type II, obesity, and immune systems. Antimicrobial peptides are also an important ingredient of innate immunity, especially at mucosal surfaces such as lungs and small intestine that are constantly exposed to a range of potential pathogens. Therefore, it plays an important role in boosting natural immune protection by reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Bioactive peptides are considered as potent drugs with well-defined pharmacological residues and also used to formulate health-enhancing nutraceuticals. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Alam S.,Institute of Pesticide Formulation Technology | Sengupta D.,Bidhan Chandra | Kole R.K.,Bidhan Chandra | Bhattacharyya A.,Bidhan Chandra
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

Laboratory experiment was conducted to understand the persistence behavior of tetraconazole in three soils of West Bengal (alluvial, red lateritic, and coastal saline) and also in water maintained at three different pH (4.0, 7.0, and 9.2) conditions. Processed soil samples (100 g) were spiked at two treatment doses: 2.5 μg/g (T1) and 5.0 μg/g (T2). Double distilled buffered water (200 ml) was spiked at two treatment doses: 1.0 μg/ml (T1) and 2.00 μg/ml (T2). The tetraconazole dissipation followed first-order reaction kinetics and the residual half-life (T 1/2) values in soil were found to be in the range of 66.9-77.2 days for T1 and 73.4-86.0 days for T2. The persistence increased in the order red lateritic > new alluvial > coastal saline. Interestingly, the red lateritic soil exhibited the lowest pH (5.56) and organic carbon (0.52 %) content as compared to other two soils. However, the dissipation of tetraconazole in case of water was not pH dependant. The T 1/2 values in water were in the range of 94 to 125 days. The study indicated the persistent nature of tetraconazole in soil and water. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Aktar M.W.,Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya | Sengupta D.,University of Calcutta | Alam S.,Institute of Pesticide Formulation Technology | Chowdhury A.,University of Calcutta
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

Methomyl, S-methyl (EZ)-N-(methylcarbamoyloxy)thioacetimidate, is a systemic insecticide chosen for the management of shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis G. Codex Alimentarious Commission has proposed a maximum residue limit (MRL) of 0.2 mg kg-1 of methomyl, and there is a need to validate this value on eggplant. First + first-order model can explain the nonlinear dissipation pattern of methomyl conveniently in comparison to first-order kinetics. The preharvest intervals (PHI) of 27.3 and 35.3 days as obtained from first + first-order model for single and double doses would bring down the methomyl residue below MRL in actual practice. The respective half-lives were 6.6 and 7.8 days. On the other hand, first-order model suggests methomyl dissipated with a half-life value around 5 days and proposed PHIs of 6.57 and 8.57 days for single and double doses, which was far from reality. Hence, five different decontamination agents were chosen for the decontamination of methomyl from eggplant. Safety factors such as theoretical maximum daily intake and maximum permissible intake were used to evaluate risk assessment to human health. A 3-day waiting period for the both doses, following conventional agricultural practice and processing factor could not ensure sufficient margin of safety. Subjecting the data to a processing factor of 60% could not bring the residues below the proposed MRL by Codex. Methomyl is not found appropriate and effective for application in eggplant. Either the proposed MRL needs to be revised or good agricultural practice involving methomyl for plant protection in eggplant cultivation is questioned. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Sengupta D.,University of Calcutta | Aktar Md.W.,Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya | Alam S.,Institute of Pesticide Formulation Technology | Chowdhury A.,University of Calcutta
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

A total of 75 animals between 1.5 and 8 years old were randomly selected for the study. Of these, 57.8% were cross-bred animals and the rest were non-descript. Moreover, 61.8% of the animals under study were brought for slaughter from local sources and the rest from farm houses. Samples collected from five districts revealed contamination with traces of organochlorine pesticides (0.01-0.22 μg g-1) and organophosphorus pesticides (0.111-0.098 μg g-1). In general, all the raw meat samples possessed dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane at the highest level. Contamination was highest in cow meat samples and lowest in chicken samples. No particular districtwise trend was obtained for the pesticides selected for analysis. Subsequent decontamination study revealed that cooking is the best option in reducing pesticide load in raw meat samples. Cooked chicken is the safest foodstuff for consumption. © Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2009. Source

Ranjith M.,Institute of Pesticide Formulation Technology | Bajya D.R.,Institute of Pesticide Formulation Technology | Manoharan T.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources

Crotolaria burhia Buch.-Ham. ex Benth. and Anacardium occidentale L. known for their insecticidal properties were tested for their efficacy against the subterranean termite, Odontotermes obesus (Rambur) in wheat and sugarcane fields at Institute of Pesticide Formulation Technology, Gurgaon, Haryana during 2015. Bait mixed with 10 % root extracts of C. burhia placed near 6 termitaria along the bunds of wheat field resulted in drastic decline of termite population ranging from 747.22 on 1st day to 289.28 numbers on 12th day after baiting. Total number of termite catch in 6 termitaria along the bunds of wheat fields after baiting period was 6704.61 whereas in untreated check it was 15078.00. Bait mixed with 5 % leaf dust of A. occidentale in sugarcane field recorded a minimum termite catch of 261.22 numbers after baiting period of 4 days, while the number was 1095.83 during prebaiting period. A total average termite population of 5655.72 was recorded in A. occidentale treated bait against 8657.67 numbers in untreated check. Termite numbers in untreated check ranged from 1277.67 to 2031.67 in wheat field and 530 to 1640 in sugarcane field. © 2015, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved. Source

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