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Parween T.,Jamia Millia Islamia University | Parween T.,Institute of Pesticide Formulation Technology | Jan S.,Jamia Hamdard University | Mahmooduzzafar A.,Jamia Hamdard University | Fatma T.,Jamia Millia Islamia University
Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2016

Chlorpyrifos (O,O-diethyl O-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl) phosphorothioate), is an organophosphate insecticide effective against a broad spectrum of insect pests of economically important crops. The present study investigated the effects of chlorpyrifos application on sulfate assimilation and macro elemental composition in different plant parts at different phenological stages. Field experiments were conducted in the month of April 2008-2009. The individual plot size was 6m2 (4m×1.5m) having 4 rows with a row-to-row distance of 15inches and plant to plant distance of 10inches. The number of plants per m2 was 15. Seedlings were collected at 5 (preflowering), 10 (flowering) and 20 (postflowering) DAT (day after treatment) to analyze the effect of chlorpyrifos on APR activity and elemental composition. At harvest stage, seed from individual treatments were analyzed for sulfur containing amino acids like methionine and cysteine content. Twenty-day-old seedlings of Vigna radiata L. were subjected to chlorpyrifos at different concentrations ranging from 0 to 1.5mM through foliar spray in the field condition. A significant increase (50% in cysteine content and 50-92% in methionine content) in sulfur containing amino acids at a higher dose rate of 1.5mM was recorded in seeds, however the increased activity of adenosine 5-phosphosulfate reductase (APR), the key enzyme in sulfate assimilation was recorded in all the three parts of the plant (leaf, stem, root.). Transiently lower nitrogen, sulfur and carbon content in 0.6 and 1.5mM chlorpyrifos application in V. radiata L. supports the inhibition of metabolic processes. However, reverse trend was exhibited at 0.3mM for same parameters. These results suggest the stimulatory effects on sulfate assimilation in V. radiata L. while as inhibitory effects were prevalent on elemental composition. © 2016 The Authors.

Aktar M.W.,Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya | Sengupta D.,University of Calcutta | Alam S.,Institute of Pesticide Formulation Technology | Chowdhury A.,University of Calcutta
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2010

Methomyl, S-methyl (EZ)-N-(methylcarbamoyloxy)thioacetimidate, is a systemic insecticide chosen for the management of shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis G. Codex Alimentarious Commission has proposed a maximum residue limit (MRL) of 0.2 mg kg-1 of methomyl, and there is a need to validate this value on eggplant. First + first-order model can explain the nonlinear dissipation pattern of methomyl conveniently in comparison to first-order kinetics. The preharvest intervals (PHI) of 27.3 and 35.3 days as obtained from first + first-order model for single and double doses would bring down the methomyl residue below MRL in actual practice. The respective half-lives were 6.6 and 7.8 days. On the other hand, first-order model suggests methomyl dissipated with a half-life value around 5 days and proposed PHIs of 6.57 and 8.57 days for single and double doses, which was far from reality. Hence, five different decontamination agents were chosen for the decontamination of methomyl from eggplant. Safety factors such as theoretical maximum daily intake and maximum permissible intake were used to evaluate risk assessment to human health. A 3-day waiting period for the both doses, following conventional agricultural practice and processing factor could not ensure sufficient margin of safety. Subjecting the data to a processing factor of 60% could not bring the residues below the proposed MRL by Codex. Methomyl is not found appropriate and effective for application in eggplant. Either the proposed MRL needs to be revised or good agricultural practice involving methomyl for plant protection in eggplant cultivation is questioned. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Sengupta D.,University of Calcutta | Aktar Md.W.,Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya | Alam S.,Institute of Pesticide Formulation Technology | Chowdhury A.,University of Calcutta
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2010

A total of 75 animals between 1.5 and 8 years old were randomly selected for the study. Of these, 57.8% were cross-bred animals and the rest were non-descript. Moreover, 61.8% of the animals under study were brought for slaughter from local sources and the rest from farm houses. Samples collected from five districts revealed contamination with traces of organochlorine pesticides (0.01-0.22 μg g-1) and organophosphorus pesticides (0.111-0.098 μg g-1). In general, all the raw meat samples possessed dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane at the highest level. Contamination was highest in cow meat samples and lowest in chicken samples. No particular districtwise trend was obtained for the pesticides selected for analysis. Subsequent decontamination study revealed that cooking is the best option in reducing pesticide load in raw meat samples. Cooked chicken is the safest foodstuff for consumption. © Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2009.

Ranjith M.,Institute of Pesticide Formulation Technology | Bajya D.R.,Institute of Pesticide Formulation Technology | Manoharan T.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources | Year: 2015

Crotolaria burhia Buch.-Ham. ex Benth. and Anacardium occidentale L. known for their insecticidal properties were tested for their efficacy against the subterranean termite, Odontotermes obesus (Rambur) in wheat and sugarcane fields at Institute of Pesticide Formulation Technology, Gurgaon, Haryana during 2015. Bait mixed with 10 % root extracts of C. burhia placed near 6 termitaria along the bunds of wheat field resulted in drastic decline of termite population ranging from 747.22 on 1st day to 289.28 numbers on 12th day after baiting. Total number of termite catch in 6 termitaria along the bunds of wheat fields after baiting period was 6704.61 whereas in untreated check it was 15078.00. Bait mixed with 5 % leaf dust of A. occidentale in sugarcane field recorded a minimum termite catch of 261.22 numbers after baiting period of 4 days, while the number was 1095.83 during prebaiting period. A total average termite population of 5655.72 was recorded in A. occidentale treated bait against 8657.67 numbers in untreated check. Termite numbers in untreated check ranged from 1277.67 to 2031.67 in wheat field and 530 to 1640 in sugarcane field. © 2015, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.

Alam S.,Institute of Pesticide Formulation Technology | Sengupta D.,Bidhan Chandra | Kole R.K.,Bidhan Chandra | Bhattacharyya A.,Bidhan Chandra
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2013

Laboratory experiment was conducted to understand the persistence behavior of tetraconazole in three soils of West Bengal (alluvial, red lateritic, and coastal saline) and also in water maintained at three different pH (4.0, 7.0, and 9.2) conditions. Processed soil samples (100 g) were spiked at two treatment doses: 2.5 μg/g (T1) and 5.0 μg/g (T2). Double distilled buffered water (200 ml) was spiked at two treatment doses: 1.0 μg/ml (T1) and 2.00 μg/ml (T2). The tetraconazole dissipation followed first-order reaction kinetics and the residual half-life (T 1/2) values in soil were found to be in the range of 66.9-77.2 days for T1 and 73.4-86.0 days for T2. The persistence increased in the order red lateritic > new alluvial > coastal saline. Interestingly, the red lateritic soil exhibited the lowest pH (5.56) and organic carbon (0.52 %) content as compared to other two soils. However, the dissipation of tetraconazole in case of water was not pH dependant. The T 1/2 values in water were in the range of 94 to 125 days. The study indicated the persistent nature of tetraconazole in soil and water. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Sanyal D.,Organisation for Prohibition of Chemical Weapons | Rani A.,Institute of Pesticide Formulation Technology | Alam S.,Institute of Pesticide Formulation Technology | Gujral S.,Institute of Pesticide Formulation Technology | Gupta R.,Institute of Pesticide Formulation Technology
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2011

Simple and efficient multi-residue analytical methods were developed and validated for the determination of 13 organochlorine and 17 organophosphorous pesticides from soil, spinach and eggplant. Techniques namely accelerated solvent extraction and dispersive SPE were used for sample preparations. The recovery studies were carried out by spiking the samples at three concentration levels (1 limit of quantification (LOQ), 5 LOQ, and 10 LOQ). The methods were subjected to a thorough validation procedure. The mean recovery for soil, spinach and eggplant were in the range of 70-120% with median CV (%) below 10%. The total uncertainty was evaluated taking four main independent sources viz.; weighing, purity of the standard, GC calibration curve and repeatability under consideration. The expanded uncertainty was well below 10% for most of the pesticides and the rest fell in the range of 10-20%. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Agarwal A.,Institute of Pesticide Formulation Technology | Prajapati R.,Institute of Pesticide Formulation Technology | Singh O.P.,Institute of Pesticide Formulation Technology | Raza S.K.,Institute of Pesticide Formulation Technology | Thakur L.K.,Institute of Pesticide Formulation Technology
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2015

Modern agriculture practices reveal an increase in use of pesticides to meet the food demand of increasing population which results in contamination of the environment. In India, crop production increased to 100 %, but the cropping area has increased marginally by 20 %. Pesticides have played a major role in achieving the maximum crop production but maximum usage and accumulation of pesticide residues is highly detrimental to aquatic and other ecosystem. Pesticide residues in drinking water have become a major challenge over the last few years. It has been monitored in public water supply resources in National capital territory, i.e., Delhi. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), mainly isomers of hexachlorohexane (HCH), dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT), endosulphan, endrin, aldrin, dieldrin, and heptachlore, were identified from potable water samples. Results suggested that continuous consumption of contaminated water can pose severe health threats to local residents of this area. Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), Delhi, had found α and β isomers of endosulphan residues in the Yamuna river. High concentrations of γ-HCH (0.259 μg/l) and malathion (2.618 μg/l) were detected in the surface water samples collected from the river Ganga in Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh (UP). High concentration of methyl parathion, endosulfan, and DDT were observed in water samples collected from the river at Bhagalpur, Bihar. The Industrial Toxicology Research Centre (ITRC), Lucknow (UP) study also found 0.5671 ppb concentrations of endosulfan in the river at Allahabad, UP. Similar results were found in other water samples in India. © 2015, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

The present paper depicts a novel method based on magnetic SPE (MSPE) for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) such as phorate, malathion, and chlorpyrifos in environmental water samples. In this study, C18 functionalized silica-coated core-shell iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were used as a surface-engineered magnetic sorbent for the selective extraction of pesticides from aqueous samples, followed by GC-MS and GC-tandem MS analysis for confirmative determination of the analytes. Various important method parameters, including quantity of MNP adsorbent, volume of sample, effective time for extraction, nature of the desorbing solvent, and pH of the aqueous sample, were investigated and optimized to obtain maximum method performance. Under the optimized instrumental analysis conditions, good linearity (r2 value 0.994) was achieved at the concentration range of 0.5-500 g/L. Recoveries were in the range of 79.2-96.3 and 80.4-97.5% in selective-ion monitoring and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) modes, respectively, at the spiking concentrations of 1, 5, and 10 g/L. MRM mode showed better sensitivity, selectivity, and low-level detection (0.5 g/L) of analytes. The novel MSPE method is a simple, cheap, rapid, and eco-friendly method for the determination of OPs in environmental water samples.

PubMed | Institute of Pesticide Formulation Technology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Current drug metabolism | Year: 2015

Treatment regimen recommended for resistant tuberculosis consists of various drugs and these drugs are prescribed for at least 12-15 months. Such a long duration therapy and high dose of antibiotics result in adverse drug reactions (ADRs). ADRs may lead to various complications in disease management like replacement of drugs, dose increment, therapy withdrawal, etc. Linezolid is one of those drugs, practiced as an anti-mycobacterial agent and it is an important member of drug regimen for MDR and XDR tuberculosis. Linezolid is a broad spectrum antibiotic known for its unique mechanism of inhibition of resistant pathogenic strains. However, it causes serious adverse effects like thrombocytopenia, optic neuropathy, peripheral neuropathy, lactic acidosis, etc. Literature suggests that Linezolid can cause severe ADRs which affect patient compliance and hinder in therapy to a larger extent. Recent studies confirm the possibility of ADRs to be predicted with genetic make-up of individuals. To effectively deliver the available treatment regimen and ensure patient compliance, it is important to manage ADRs more efficiently. The role of pharmacogenomics in reducing adverse drug effects has been recently explored. In the present review, we discussed about Linezolid induced adverse drug reactions, mechanisms and genetic associations.

Bajya D.R.,Institute of Pesticide Formulation Technology | Ranjith M.,Institute of Pesticide Formulation Technology | Lakharan M.C.,Institute of Pesticide Formulation Technology
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2015

Field studies were undertaken at research farm, IPFT, Gurgaon to evaluate the efficacy of indoxacarb 5% + fipronil 5% SC at four doses, viz. 100 (50+50) g a.i./ha ,125 (62.5+62.5) g a.i./ha, 150 (75+75) g a.i./ha and 250 (125+125) g a.i./ha, along with fipronil 5% SC @ 100 g a.i./ha, indoxacarb 14.5% SC @ 75 g a.i./ha and Chlorpyrifos 16% + Alphacypermethrin 1% EC @ 425 (400+25) g a.i./ ha against jassids and whiteflies in cotton during kharif, 2013-14 and kharif, 2014-15. Indoxacarb 5% + fipronil 5% SC @ 125 g a.i./ha was highly effective in suppressing the population of jassids and whiteflies, resulting in 1.00, 0.67 and 1.07, 0.67 mean population of jassids and whiteflies during first and second season respectively and was on par with the higher doses of Indoxacarb 5% + fipronil 5% SC during both the seasons.

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