Time filter

Source Type

Bubolz A.-M.,University of Ulm | Weissinger S.E.,University of Ulm | Stenzinger A.,University of Heidelberg | Arndt A.,Institute of Pathology and Molecular Pathology | And 13 more authors.
Oncotarget | Year: 2014

For a growing number of tumors the BRAF V600E mutation carries therapeutic relevance. In histiocytic proliferations the distribution of BRAF mutations and their relevance has not been clarified. Here we present a retrospective genotyping study and a prospective observational study of a patient treated with a BRAF inhibitor. Genotyping of 69 histiocytic lesions revealed that 23/48 Langerhans cell lesions were BRAF-V600E-mutant whereas all non-Langerhans cell lesions (including dendritic cell sarcoma, juvenile xanthogranuloma, Rosai-Dorfman disease, and granular cell tumor) were wild-type. A metareview of 29 publications showed an overall mutation frequency of 48.5%; and with N=653 samples, this frequency is well defined. The BRAF mutation status cannot be predicted based on clinical parameters and outcome analysis showed no difference. Genotyping identified a 45 year-old woman with an aggressive and treatment-refractory, ultrastructurally confirmed systemic BRAF-mutant LCH. Prior treatments included glucocorticoid/vinblastine and cladribine-monotherapy. Treatment with vemurafenib over 3 months resulted in a dramatic metabolic response by FDG-PET and stable radiographic disease; the patient experienced progression after 6 months. In conclusion, BRAF mutations in histiocytic proliferations are restricted to lesions of the Langerhans-cell type. While for most LCH-patients efficient therapies are available, patients with BRAF mutations may benefit from the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib.


Delladetsima I.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Sakellariou S.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Kokkori A.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Kokkori A.,Institute of Pathology and Molecular Pathology | And 2 more authors.
Histology and Histopathology | Year: 2016

Aim: To investigate atrophic parenchymal changes in ischemic liver conditions. Design: We studied 18 cases of hepatic lesions with atrophic changes due to altered blood flow (hepatic venous congestion n=15 including 4 cases with additional nodular regenerative hyperplasia-NRH, NRH n=1, and antiphospholipid syndrome with patchy parenchymal atrophy n=2). Metaplastic hepatocellular changes, hepatocyte proliferation, hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation, and sinusoidal capillarization were examined immunohistochemically with antibodies to keratins (K) 7 and 19, Ki67, αSMA and CD34, respectively. Results: K7 was positive and K19 was negative in zone 3 atrophic hepatocytes in venous congestion and in areas of plate atrophy, as well as in congested or compressed sites in NRH. Sinusoidal CD34-positivity indicating capillarization accompanied K7 immunoexpression. Masson trichrome revealed sinusoidal fibrosis to be restricted in atrophic areas, usually mild and in 7 cases focally dense. αSMA expression expanded beyond K7-positive areas. Ki67 was negative in K7-positive hepatocytes. Conclusion: Ischemic parenchymal changes are characterized by hepatocyte K7 immunoexpression, sinusoidal capillarization, HSC activation and lack of cellular proliferation, indicating an early reaction of the major liver parenchyma cellular components creating a more resistant microenvironment. These phenotypic alterations may prove valuable in the discrimination of ischemic liver lesions. © 2016, Histology and Histopathology. All rights reserved.


Steinestel K.,University of Federal Defense Munich | Steinestel K.,Institute of Pathology and Molecular Pathology | Lennerz J.K.,University of Ulm | Eder S.,University of Federal Defense Munich | And 2 more authors.
Virchows Archiv | Year: 2014

KRAS/BRAF mutation testing and mismatch repair (MMR) protein immunohistochemistry have an established role in routine diagnostic evaluation of colorectal carcinoma (CRC). However, since the exact impact of these molecular characteristics on tumor morphology and behavior is still subject to research, the aim of our study was to examine associations between molecular and morphologic features that had not been analyzed in this combination before. KRAS (codons 12, 13, and 61) and BRAF (codon 600) mutation status and MMR protein expression were analyzed in a consecutive series of 117 CRC samples using DNA pyrosequencing and immunohistochemistry. Tumor cell budding, infiltration pattern, and peritumoral lymphocytic (PTL) reaction was assessed applying established criteria. Molecular and morphological findings were correlated applying chi-square and Fisher's exact test. We found KRAS or BRAF mutations in 40 and 8 % of samples, while loss of MMR protein expression was observed in 11 %. Tumor budding was significantly associated with infiltrative growth, absence of PTLs, and blood and lymph vessel infiltration. Neither KRAS nor BRAF mutations were associated with a certain growth pattern or budding intensity of CRC, but loss of MMR protein expression was found in context with BRAF mutation, expanding growth, and presence of PTLs. Our results confirm an association between loss of MMR protein expression, presence of activating BRAF mutation, expanding growth, and PTL reaction as well as between tumor budding, infiltrative growth pattern, and tumor aggressiveness; however, there was no such association between the presence of an activating KRAS or BRAF mutation and a distinct invasion pattern or tumor aggressiveness in CRC. © 2014 Springer-Verlag.


Steinestel K.,University of Federal Defense Munich | Steinestel K.,University of Ulm | Bruderlein S.,University of Ulm | Lennerz J.K.,University of Ulm | And 5 more authors.
Molecular Cancer | Year: 2014

Background: The Abelson tyrosine kinase (c-Abl) inhibitor STI571 (Glivec®) has been shown to effectively inhibit colorectal cancer cell migration and invasion. The c-Abl substrate abelson interactor 1 (Abi1) is a key regulator of actin reorganization and upregulated in colorectal carcinoma. The specific role of Abi1 in relation to extracellular matrix degradation and effects of targeting Abi1 phosphorylation have not yet been examined. Here, we investigated the role of Abi1 in relation to invasive properties in colorectal cancer.Methods and results: In 56 primary human colorectal carcinoma samples, we found overexpression of Abi1 in 39% at the invasive edge of the tumour, associated with an infiltrative phenotype and high-grade tumour cell budding (p = 0.001). To explore the role of Abi1 in vitro, we employed the Abi1 expressing and KRAS-mutated CHD1 model and performed matrix degradation assays that showed Abi1 localization at specific sites of matrix degradation. Moreover, quantification of matrix dissolution demonstrated suppression after RNAi knockdown of Abi1 by 95% (p = 0.001). Importantly, treatment with STI571 did abolish Abi1 Y435-phosphorylation, suppressed the matrix dissolution, decreased fibronectin attachment, and suppressed cell invasion through reconstituted extracellular matrix.Conclusion: Our data indicate that phosphorylated Abi1 contributes to the invasive properties of colorectal cancer. © 2014 Steinestel et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Steinestel J.,University of Ulm | Cronauer M.V.,University of Ulm | Muller J.,University of Ulm | Al Ghazal A.,University of Ulm | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background: The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in bladder carcinogenesis remains controversial. Overexpression of p16INK4a, a surrogate marker for infection with oncogenic HPV in other tumours, has been described for urothelial carcinoma in situ (UCIS). Our goal was therefore to evaluate whether overexpression of p16INK4a is associated with HPV infection and to identify mechanisms of p16INK4a upregulation in UCIS. Materials and Methods: In 60 tissue specimens from a total of 45 patients (UCIS and controls), we performed p16INK4a immunohistochemistry followed by detection and subclassification of HPV DNA. In a subset of samples, we tested for gene amplification of p16INK4a applying fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). RAS/MAPK signalling and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was assessed using immunohistochemistry. Finally, we transfected urothelial carcinoma cells with KRAS and examined the expression of p16INK4a as well as markers of EMT. Results: We found overexpression of p16INK4a in 92.6% of UCIS and in all cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) controls. In contrast, we detected high-risk HPV DNA in 80% of CIN, but none in UCIS. There was no gene amplification of p16INK4a. High levels of phosphorylated kinases and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and loss of membraneous E-cadherin were detected in UCIS. KRAS transfection of urothelial carcinoma cells led to upregulation of p16INK4a and uPA accompanied by loss of E-cadherin that could be inhibited by application of the kinase-inhibitor Sorafenib. Conclusions: Our results show that overexpression of p16INK4a in UCIS is neither associated with HPV infection nor p16INK4a gene amplification but is a consequence of enhanced RAS/MAPK signalling that promotes EMT, possibly due to Sorafenib-sensitive paracrine secretion of the EMT activator uPA. These findings might open a novel therapeutic option for localized but aggressive urothelial cancer. © 2013 Steinestel et al.


Arndt A.,Institute of Pathology and Molecular Pathology | Kraft K.,Institute of Pathology and Molecular Pathology | Wardelmann E.,University of Munster | Steinestel K.,University of Munster
BioMed Research International | Year: 2015

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of death from cancer in the western world, but tumor biology and clinical course show great interindividual variation. Molecular and morphologic tumor characteristics, such as KRAS/BRAF mutation status, mismatch repair (MMR) protein expression, tumor growth pattern, and tumor cell budding, have been shown to be of key therapeutic and/or prognostic relevance in CRC. Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is a membrane-anchored zinc-binding endopeptidase that is expressed at the leading edge of various invasive carcinomas and promotes tumor cell invasion through degradation of the extracellular matrix. The aim of this study was to investigate possible associations between MT1-MMP expression and molecular tumor characteristics as well as morphologic features of tumor aggressiveness in a consecutive series of 79 CRC tissue samples. However, although MT1-MMP was expressed in 41/79 samples (52%), there was no significant association between MT1-MMP expression and KRAS/BRAF mutation status, MMR protein expression, presence of lymphovascular invasion, tumor growth pattern, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, or tumor cell budding in our sample cohort (P > 0.05). Thus, we conclude that although MT1-MMP may play a role in CRC invasion, it is not of key relevance to the current models of CRC invasion and aggressiveness. © 2015 Annette Arndt et al.


Steinestel J.,Muenster University Medical Center | Al Ghazal A.,University of Ulm | Arndt A.,Institute of Pathology and Molecular Pathology | Schnoeller T.J.,University of Ulm | And 3 more authors.
BMC Cancer | Year: 2015

Background: Up to 50% of penile squamous cell carcinomas (pSCC) develop in the context of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection. Most of these tumours have been reported to show basaloid differentiation and overexpression of tumour suppressor protein p16INK4a. Whether HPV-triggered carcinogenesis in pSCC has an impact on tumour aggressiveness, however, is still subject to research. Methods: In tissue specimens from 58 patients with surgically treated pSCC between 1995 and 2012, we performed p16INK4a immunohistochemistry and DNA extraction followed by HPV subtyping using a PCR-based approach. The results were correlated with histopathological and clinical parameters. Results: 90.4% of tumours were of conventional (keratinizing) subtype. HR-HPV DNA was detected in 29.3%, and a variety of p16INK4a staining patterns was observed in 58.6% of samples regardless of histologic subtype. Sensitivity of basaloid subtype to predict HR-HPV positivity was poor (11.8%). In contrast, sensitivity and specificity of p16INK4a staining to predict presence of HR-HPV DNA was 100% and 57%, respectively. By focussing on those samples with intense nuclear staining pattern for p16INK4a, specificity could be improved to 83%. Both expression of p16INK4a and presence of HR-HPV DNA, but not histologic grade, were inversely associated with pSCC tumour invasion (p=0.01, p=0.03, and p=0.71). However, none of these correlated with nodal involvement or distant metastasis. In contrast to pathological tumour stage, the HR-HPV status, histologic grade, and p16INK4a positivity failed to predict cancer-specific survival. Conclusions: Our results confirm intense nuclear positivity for p16INK4a, rather than histologic subtype, as a good predictor for presence of HR-HPV DNA in pSCC. HR-HPV / p16INK4a positivity, independent of histological tumour grade, indicates a less aggressive local behaviour; however, its value as an independent prognostic indicator remains to be determined. Since local invasion can be judged without p16INK4a/HPV-detection on microscopic evaluation, our study argues against routine testing in the setting of pSCC. © Steinestel et al.; licensee BioMed Central.


PubMed | University of Federal Defense Munich, University of Ulm, University of Munster and Institute of Pathology and Molecular Pathology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine | Year: 2016

Metastasis is the survival-determining factor in urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the urinary bladder. The small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel 3 (SK3) enhances tumor cell invasion in breast cancer and malignant melanoma. Since Edelfosine, a glycerophospholipid with antitumoral properties, effectively inhibits SK3 channel activity, our goal was to evaluate SK3 as a potential molecular target to inhibit the gain of an invasive phenotype in UC. SK3 protein expression was analyzed in 208 tissue samples and UC cell lines. Effects of Edelfosine on SK3 expression and intracellular calcium levels as well as on cell morphology, cell survival and proliferation were assessed using immunoblotting, potentiometric fluorescence microscopy, and clonogenic/cell survival assay; furthermore, we analyzed the effect of Edelfosine and SK3 RNAi knockdown on tumor cell migration and invasion in vitro and in vivo. We found that SK3 is strongly expressed in muscle-invasive UC and in the RT112 cellular tumor model. Higher concentrations of Edelfosine have a strong antitumoral effect on UC cells, while 1M effectively inhibits migration/invasion of UC cells in vitro and in vivo comparable to the SK3 knockdown phenotype. Taken together, our results show strong expression of SK3 in muscle-invasive UC, consistent with the postulated role of the protein in tumor cell invasion. Edelfosine is able to effectively inhibit migration and invasion of UC cells in vitro and in vivo in an SK3-dependent way, pointing towards a possible role for Edelfosine as an antiinvasive drug to effectively inhibit UC cell invasion and metastasis.


PubMed | University of Munster and Institute of Pathology and Molecular Pathology
Type: | Journal: BioMed research international | Year: 2015

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of death from cancer in the western world, but tumor biology and clinical course show great interindividual variation. Molecular and morphologic tumor characteristics, such as KRAS/BRAF mutation status, mismatch repair (MMR) protein expression, tumor growth pattern, and tumor cell budding, have been shown to be of key therapeutic and/or prognostic relevance in CRC. Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is a membrane-anchored zinc-binding endopeptidase that is expressed at the leading edge of various invasive carcinomas and promotes tumor cell invasion through degradation of the extracellular matrix. The aim of this study was to investigate possible associations between MT1-MMP expression and molecular tumor characteristics as well as morphologic features of tumor aggressiveness in a consecutive series of 79 CRC tissue samples. However, although MT1-MMP was expressed in 41/79 samples (52%), there was no significant association between MT1-MMP expression and KRAS/BRAF mutation status, MMR protein expression, presence of lymphovascular invasion, tumor growth pattern, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, or tumor cell budding in our sample cohort (P > 0.05). Thus, we conclude that although MT1-MMP may play a role in CRC invasion, it is not of key relevance to the current models of CRC invasion and aggressiveness.


PubMed | Muenster University Medical Center, University of Munster, University of Ulm and Institute of Pathology and Molecular Pathology
Type: | Journal: BMC cancer | Year: 2015

Up to 50% of penile squamous cell carcinomas (pSCC) develop in the context of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection. Most of these tumours have been reported to show basaloid differentiation and overexpression of tumour suppressor protein p16(INK4a). Whether HPV-triggered carcinogenesis in pSCC has an impact on tumour aggressiveness, however, is still subject to research.In tissue specimens from 58 patients with surgically treated pSCC between 1995 and 2012, we performed p16(INK4a) immunohistochemistry and DNA extraction followed by HPV subtyping using a PCR-based approach. The results were correlated with histopathological and clinical parameters.90.4% of tumours were of conventional (keratinizing) subtype. HR-HPV DNA was detected in 29.3%, and a variety of p16(INK4a) staining patterns was observed in 58.6% of samples regardless of histologic subtype. Sensitivity of basaloid subtype to predict HR-HPV positivity was poor (11.8%). In contrast, sensitivity and specificity of p16(INK4a) staining to predict presence of HR-HPV DNA was 100% and 57%, respectively. By focussing on those samples with intense nuclear staining pattern for p16(INK4a), specificity could be improved to 83%. Both expression of p16(INK4a) and presence of HR-HPV DNA, but not histologic grade, were inversely associated with pSCC tumour invasion (p=0.01, p=0.03, and p=0.71). However, none of these correlated with nodal involvement or distant metastasis. In contrast to pathological tumour stage, the HR-HPV status, histologic grade, and p16(INK4a) positivity failed to predict cancer-specific survival.Our results confirm intense nuclear positivity for p16(INK4a), rather than histologic subtype, as a good predictor for presence of HR-HPV DNA in pSCC. HR-HPV / p16(INK4a) positivity, independent of histological tumour grade, indicates a less aggressive local behaviour; however, its value as an independent prognostic indicator remains to be determined. Since local invasion can be judged without p16(INK4a)/HPV-detection on microscopic evaluation, our study argues against routine testing in the setting of pSCC.

Loading Institute of Pathology and Molecular Pathology collaborators
Loading Institute of Pathology and Molecular Pathology collaborators