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Biasin V.,Ludwig Boltzmann Research Institute | Chwalek K.,Justus Liebig University | Wilhelm J.,Justus Liebig University | Best J.,Justus Liebig University | And 9 more authors.
International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology | Year: 2014

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is characterized by enhanced pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) proliferation leading to vascular remodeling. Although, multiple factors have been associated with pathogenesis of PH the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we hypothesize that already very short exposure to hypoxia may activate molecular cascades leading to vascular remodeling. Microarray studies from lung homogenates of mice exposed to only 3 h of hypoxia revealed endothelin-1 (ET-1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) as the most upregulated genes, and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway as the most differentially regulated pathway. Evaluation of these results in vitro showed that ET-1 but not CTGF stimulation of human PASMCs increased DNA synthesis and expression of proliferation markers such as Ki67 and cell cycle regulator, cyclin D1. Moreover, ET-1 treatment elevated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk)-dependent c-fos expression and phosphorylation of c-fos and c-jun transcription factors. Silencing of c-fos with siRNA abrogated the ET-1-induced proliferation of PASMCs. Expression and immunohistochemical analyses revealed higher levels of total and phosphorylated c-fos and c-jun in the vessel wall of lung samples of human idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension patents, hypoxia-exposed mice and monocrotaline-treated rats as compared to control subjects. These findings shed the light on the involvement of c-fos/c-jun in the proliferative response of PASMCs to ET-1 indicating that already very short hypoxia exposure leads to the regulation of mediators involved in vascular remodeling underlying PH. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Eminaga O.,University of Cologne | Hinkelammert R.,University Hospital Muenster | Abbas M.,Hannover Medical School | Titze U.,University Hospital Muenster | And 3 more authors.
Prostate | Year: 2013

Purpose: High-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) is believed to be a precursor of prostate cancer (PCa). This study evaluated whether HGPIN was located close to PCa in whole radical prostatectomy specimens (RPSs). materials And Methods: We evaluated 1,374 prostate specimens from 1999 to 2010 using a cMDX-based map model of the prostate. The distribution of 10,439 PCa foci was analyzed and visualized on a heat map. The color gradient of the heat map was reduced to six colors representing the frequency classification of the relative frequency of PCa using an image posterization effect. We defined 22 regions in the prostate according to the frequency of PCa occurrence. Seven hundred ninety RPSs containing 6,374 PCa foci and 4,502 HGPIN foci were evaluated. The topographical association between PCa and HGPIN in the RPSs was analyzed by estimating the frequencies of PCa and HGPIN in 22 regions. A logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the odds ratios of HGPIN for the presence of PCa in 22 regions. RESULTS Fifty-eight percent of PCa specimens included HGPIN and had significantly more favorable Gleason scores, lower PSA levels and smaller relative tumor volumes than isolated PCa specimens. HGPIN (68%) and PCa (69%) were predominantly localized to the apical half of the prostate. HGPIN was mainly concentrated in the peripheral zone medial to regions with high PCa frequencies. Upon logistic regression analysis, HGPIN was a significant predictor of PCa co-existence in 11 regions. Conclusions: HGPIN was located adjacent to PCa in whole RPSs. PCa concomitant with HGPIN had more favorable pathologic features than isolated PCa. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Wolff J.-C.,Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research | Wolff J.-C.,Justus Liebig University | Wilhelm J.,Justus Liebig University | Fink L.,Justus Liebig University | And 5 more authors.
European Respiratory Journal | Year: 2010

Although increasing numbers of patients suffer from chronic destructive lung diseases, there are no effective therapeutic options apart from transplantation. Understanding the mechanisms of physiological and regenerative alveolar septation is prerequisite for the development of regenerative therapies for the lung. We compared lung gene expression in the phase of induction of post-natal and post-pneumonectomy alveolarisation to identify regulatory genes involved in both processes. We performed genome-wide microarray screenings of newborn and pneumonectomised mouse lungs 1 and 3 days after birth or surgery. Selected candidates were validated by real-time PCR, Western blot and in situ hybridisation. We found 58 genes to be regulated in both models with 40 candidates being changed likewise. Many of these genes participated in growth and differentiation processes. Additionally, immune system, structural molecules, respiratory chain, signal transduction and metabolism were involved. Some candidates were not yet linked to specific functions. The highest regulatory concordance was observed for various isoforms of (pro-)collagen molecules, elastin and the elastin-associated protein fibrillin1 being corporately upregulated. Our findings do not definitively support a common regulating mechanism for induction of postnatal and adult alveolarisation, but some candidates in the intersection of both models are promising for further investigations. Copyright©ERS Journals Ltd 2010.

Kubler K.,University of Bonn | Ayub T.H.,University of Bonn | Weber S.K.,University of Bonn | Zivanovic O.,University of Bonn | And 9 more authors.
Gynecologic Oncology | Year: 2014

Objective Endometrial adenocarcinoma is one of the most common gynecologic malignancies worldwide and in stages confined to the uterus considered to have an excellent prognosis. However, in advanced or recurrent cases when surgery fails to achieve disease control other treatment options are less effective. Thus, new therapeutic avenues are needed.Methods To provide the rationale for the use of novel agents that target immune checkpoints 163 type I endometrial cancer samples were immunohistochemically screened for the presence of CD163+ tumor-associated macrophages and Foxp3+ regulatory T cells. Further, a D2-40-based evaluation of lymph vessel density and lymphovascular space invasion was carried out. Correlation analysis with clinicopathological parameters was performed; Kaplan-Meier curves were generated; multivariate analysis was undertaken as appropriate.Results A substantial amount of tumor-associated macrophages and regulatory T cells was detected in all specimens characterizing endometrial cancer as an immunogenic tumor. However, only the increased infiltration of tumor-associated macrophages was proportionally associated with advanced FIGO stages, high tumor grade, increased lymph vessel density, lymphovascular space invasion and lymph node metastasis. Thus, the presence of tumor-associated macrophages indicates aggressive tumor behavior and appeared to be an independent prognostic factor for recurrence-free survival.Conclusions Our results make future therapeutic approaches that target tumor-associated macrophages reasonable to improve the outcome of women with advanced or recurrent endometrial adenocarcinoma. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Loibl S.,German Breast Group | Muller B.M.,Charite University Hospital | Von Minckwitz G.,German Breast Group | Schwabe M.,Charite University Hospital | And 10 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2011

The androgen receptor (AR) has been shown to be of potential prognostic importance in retrospective cohorts. We evaluated immunohistochemical AR expression on a tissue microarray of 673 core biopsies from primary breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant docetaxel/doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide (TAC) chemotherapy in the prospective GeparTrio phase-III trial. AR was detected in 53.2% of tumours. Lowest AR expression was detected in triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) with 21.2%. Highest AR expression was observed in Luminal A-like tumours with 67%. In AR-positive tumours, pathological complete response (pCR) rate was 12.8% compared to 25.4% in AR-negative tumours (P<0.0001). In multivariate analysis, AR independently predicted pCR (OR 1.86; 95% CI [1.16-2.79] P = 0.0086). Overall patients with an AR-positive tumour had a significant better disease-free (DFS) (AR-positive 78.9% vs. AR-negative 72.5%; log-rank P = 0.0329) and overall survival (OS) (88.8% vs. 82.7%; log-rank P = 0.0234) than those with AR-negative tumours. Stratified analysis revealed that in the TNBC subgroup, but not in the other subgroups defined by ER, PgR and HER2, AR expression predicted a better DFS (AR-positive 85.7% vs. AR-negative 65.5% log-rank P = 0.0544) and OS (95.2% vs. 76.2%; log-rank P = 0.0355). Within the non-pCR subgroup, AR positivity selected a group with a significant better DFS (P = 0.045) and OS (0.021) but not within the pCR group. Patients with an AR-negative tumour have a higher chance of achieving a pCR than those with an AR-positive one. But, patients with AR-positive tumours have a better survival especially if they did not achieve a pCR. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2011.

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