Banka S.,Genomic Health |
Banka S.,University of Manchester |
Lederer D.,Institute Of Pathologie Et Genetique |
Benoit V.,Institute Of Pathologie Et Genetique |
And 19 more authors.
Clinical Genetics | Year: 2015
We describe seven patients with KDM6A (located on Xp11.3 and encodes UTX) mutations, a rare cause of Kabuki syndrome (KS2, MIM 300867) and report, for the first time, germ-line missense and splice-site mutations in the gene. We demonstrate that less than 5% cases of Kabuki syndrome are due to KDM6A mutations. Our work shows that similar to the commoner Type 1 Kabuki syndrome (KS1, MIM 147920) caused by KMT2D (previously called MLL2) mutations, KS2 patients are characterized by hypotonia and feeding difficulties during infancy and poor postnatal growth and short stature. Unlike KS1, developmental delay and learning disability are generally moderate-severe in boys but mild-moderate in girls with KS2. Some girls may have a normal developmental profile. Speech and cognition tend to be more severely affected than motor development. Increased susceptibility to infections, join laxity, heart, dental and ophthalmological anomalies are common. Hypoglycaemia is more common in KS2 than in KS1. Facial dysmorphism with KDM6A mutations is variable and diagnosis on facial gestalt alone may be difficult in some patients. Hypertrichosis, long halluces and large central incisors may be useful clues to an underlying KDM6A mutation in some patients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Lederer D.,Institute Of Pathologie Et Genetique |
Grisart B.,Institute Of Pathologie Et Genetique |
Digilio M.C.,Bambino Ges Pediatric Hospital |
Benoit V.,Institute Of Pathologie Et Genetique |
And 6 more authors.
American Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2012
Kabuki syndrome (KS) is a rare genetic disease that causes developmental delay and congenital anomalies. Since the identification of MLL2 mutations as the primary cause of KS, such mutations have been identified in 56%-76% of affected individuals, suggesting that there may be additional genes associated with KS. Here, we describe three KS individuals with de novo partial or complete deletions of an X chromosome gene, KDM6A, that encodes a histone demethylase that interacts with MLL2. Although KDM6A escapes X inactivation, we found a skewed X inactivation pattern, in which the deleted X chromosome was inactivated in the majority of the cells. This study identifies KDM6A mutations as another cause of KS and highlights the growing role of histone methylases and histone demethylases in multiple-congenital-anomaly and intellectual-disability syndromes. © 2012 The American Society of Human Genetics.
Colinet B.,Service de pneumologie |
Dargent J.L.,Institute Of Pathologie Et Genetique |
Fremault A.,Service de pneumologie
Revue des maladies respiratoires | Year: 2014
Pulmonary nodules are a common reason for consultation and their investigation must always exclude a possible neoplastic cause. This means that, in addition to a thorough history, investigations may be necessary which are sometimes invasive and therefore potentially a cause of iatrogenic harm. The toxic aetiologies for pulmonary nodules are rare. We report a case of a patient with pulmonary nodules occurring predominantly in the right lung, about 1cm in diameter, non-cavitating without calcification, and sometimes surrounded by a peripheral halo. The nodules were a chance finding during preoperative evaluation. After a comprehensive review, a reaction to an inhaled irritant was the preferred hypothesis, specifically overuse of a compound insecticide containing, in addition to the propellant gas and solvent type hydrocarbon - a mixture of piperonyl butoxide, of esbiothrine and permethrin. Removal of this led to the complete disappearance of nodules. Pathological examination identified bronchiolitis obliterans with organising pneumonia accompanied by non-necrotizing granulomas and lipid vacuoles. Copyright © 2013 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
PubMed | Institute Of Pathologie Et Genetique, Ghent University and Cliniques Universitaires Saint Luc
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Prenatal diagnosis | Year: 2016
To implement non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for fetal aneuploidies with semiconductor sequencing in an academic cytogenomic laboratory and to evaluate the first 15-month experience on clinical samples.We validated a NIPT protocol for cell-free fetal DNA sequencing from maternal plasma for the detection of trisomy 13, 18 and 21 on a semiconductor sequencing instrument. Fetal DNA fraction calculation for all samples and several quality parameters were implemented in the workflow. One thousand eighty-one clinical NIPT samples were analysed, following the described protocol.Non-invasive prenatal testing was successfully implemented and validated on 201 normal and 74 aneuploid samples. From 1081 clinical samples, 17 samples showed an abnormal result: 14 trisomy 21 samples, one trisomy 18 and one trisomy 16 were detected. Also a maternal copy number variation on chromosome 13 was observed, which could potentially lead to a false positive trisomy 13 result. One sex discordant result was reported, possibly attributable to a vanishing twin. Moreover, our combined fetal fraction calculation enabled a more reliable risk estimate for trisomy 13, 18 and 21.Non-invasive prenatal testing for trisomy 21, 18 and 13 has a very high specificity and sensitivity. Because of several biological phenomena, diagnostic invasive confirmation of abnormal results remains required. 2016 The Authors. Prenatal Diagnosis published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
PubMed | Guys and St Thomas Hospital, Institute Of Pathologie Et Genetique, Center for Nephrology and Metabolic Medicine, Autonomous University of Barcelona and 6 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016
Alport syndrome results from mutations in the COL4A5 (X-linked) or COL4A3/COL4A4 (recessive) genes. This study examined 754 previously- unpublished variants in these genes from individuals referred for genetic testing in 12 accredited diagnostic laboratories worldwide, in addition to all published COL4A5, COL4A3 and COL4A4 variants in the LOVD databases. It also determined genotype-phenotype correlations for variants where clinical data were available. Individuals were referred for genetic testing where Alport syndrome was suspected clinically or on biopsy (renal failure, hearing loss, retinopathy, lamellated glomerular basement membrane), variant pathogenicity was assessed using currently-accepted criteria, and variants were examined for gene location, and age at renal failure onset. Results were compared using Fishers exact test (DNA Stata). Altogether 754 new DNA variants were identified, an increase of 25%, predominantly in people of European background. Of the 1168 COL4A5 variants, 504 (43%) were missense mutations, 273 (23%) splicing variants, 73 (6%) nonsense mutations, 169 (14%) short deletions and 76 (7%) complex or large deletions. Only 135 of the 432 Gly residues in the collagenous sequence were substituted (31%), which means that fewer than 10% of all possible variants have been identified. Both missense and nonsense mutations in COL4A5 were not randomly distributed but more common at the 70 CpG sequences (p<10-41 and p<0.001 respectively). Gly>Ala substitutions were underrepresented in all three genes (p< 0.0001) probably because of an association with a milder phenotype. The average age at end-stage renal failure was the same for all mutations in COL4A5 (24.4 7.8 years), COL4A3 (23.3 9.3) and COL4A4 (25.4 10.3) (COL4A5 and COL4A3, p = 0.45; COL4A5 and COL4A4, p = 0.55; COL4A3 and COL4A4, p = 0.41). For COL4A5, renal failure occurred sooner with non-missense than missense variants (p<0.01). For the COL4A3 and COL4A4 genes, age at renal failure occurred sooner with two non-missense variants (p = 0.08, and p = 0.01 respectively). Thus DNA variant characteristics that predict age at renal failure appeared to be the same for all three Alport genes. Founder mutations (with the pathogenic variant in at least 5 apparently- unrelated individuals) were not necessarily associated with a milder phenotype. This study illustrates the benefits when routine diagnostic laboratories share and analyse their data.
Stewart G.D.,University of Edinburgh |
Van Neste L.,MDxHealth |
Delvenne P.,University of Liège |
Delree P.,Institute Of Pathologie Et Genetique |
And 8 more authors.
Journal of Urology | Year: 2013
Purpose: Concern about possible false-negative prostate biopsy histopathology findings often leads to rebiopsy. A quantitative methylation specific polymerase chain reaction assay panel, including GSTP1, APC and RASSF1, could increase the sensitivity of detecting cancer over that of pathological review alone, leading to a high negative predictive value and a decrease in unnecessary repeat biopsies. Materials and Methods: The MATLOC study blindly tested archived prostate biopsy needle core tissue samples of 498 subjects from the United Kingdom and Belgium with histopathologically negative prostate biopsies, followed by positive (cases) or negative (controls) repeat biopsy within 30 months. Clinical performance of the epigenetic marker panel, emphasizing negative predictive value, was assessed and cross-validated. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate all risk factors. Results: The epigenetic assay performed on the first negative biopsies of this retrospective review cohort resulted in a negative predictive value of 90% (95% CI 87-93). In a multivariate model correcting for patient age, prostate specific antigen, digital rectal examination and first biopsy histopathological characteristics the epigenetic assay was a significant independent predictor of patient outcome (OR 3.17, 95% CI 1.81-5.53). Conclusions: A multiplex quantitative methylation specific polymerase chain reaction assay determining the methylation status of GSTP1, APC and RASSF1 was strongly associated with repeat biopsy outcome up to 30 months after initial negative biopsy in men with suspicion of prostate cancer. Adding this epigenetic assay could improve the prostate cancer diagnostic process and decrease unnecessary repeat biopsies. © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc.
Francois V.,Free University of Colombia |
Shehade H.,Free University of Colombia |
Acolty V.,Free University of Colombia |
Preyat N.,Free University of Colombia |
And 3 more authors.
Mucosal Immunology | Year: 2015
The ectonucleotidases CD39 and CD73 sequentially degrade the extracellular ATP pool and release immunosuppressive adenosine, thereby regulating inflammatory responses. This control is likely to be critical in the gastrointestinal tract where high levels of ATP are released in particular by commensal bacteria. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the involvement of the adenosinergic regulation in the intestine of mice in steady-state conditions and on acute infection with Toxoplasma gondii. We show that both conventional (Tconv) and regulatory (Treg) CD4 + T lymphocytes express CD39 and CD73 in the intestine of naive mice. CD73 expression was downregulated during acute infection with T. gondii, leading to impaired capacity to produce adenosine. Interestingly, the expression of adenosine receptors was maintained and treatment with receptor agonists limited immunopathology and dysbiosis, suggesting that the activation of adenosine receptors may constitute an efficient approach to control intestinal inflammation associated with decreased ectonucleotidase expression.
Ngendahayo P.,Institute Of Pathologie Et Genetique |
De Saint Aubain N.,Institute Jules Bordet
American Journal of Dermatopathology | Year: 2012
Juvenile xanthogranuloma is a benign histiocytic lesion that displays different histologic patterns. The classic form consists of a proliferation of foamy histiocytes admixed with numerous multinucleated Touton-type giant cells, lymphocytes, and eosinophils. Mitotic figures are rare or even absent. Apart from this classic form, a nonlipidized form showing a diffuse infiltrate of nonfoamy histiocytes with or without rare Touton-type giant cells is described. The mitotic activity is somewhat higher than in the classic form. We describe here an unusual case, occurring in a 71-year-old man, characterized by a very high mitotic index (22 mitotic figures per 10 high-power fields). © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Boland C.,Catholic University of Louvain |
Collet V.,Catholic University of Louvain |
Laterre E.,Institute Of Pathologie Et Genetique |
Lecuivre C.,Catholic University of Louvain |
And 2 more authors.
Inflammation | Year: 2011
The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway has been identified as playing a key role in the communication between the central nervous system and the immune system during inflammation. The potential beneficial role of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) remains to be clarified in established sepsis. We hypothesized that VNS or nicotine administration would reduce lung injury and mortality in established sepsis. We conducted a prospective, randomized experimental study. Four hours after peritonitis induction by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), rats were randomized into three groups of seven animals according to the intervention: control group, VNS group (15 V, 2 ms, 5 Hz during 20 min), and nicotine group (400 μg/kg intraperitoneal). Survival was determined as lung injury score 4 and 8 h after CLP. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-3 and thrombin-antithrombin complexes (TATc) were measured at baseline and at 4 and 8 h after CLP. Survival at 8 h was 71.4%, 100%, and 23.8% in the control, VNS, and nicotine groups, respectively (p < 0.05). All animals had lung damage but without significant difference between groups even if nicotine-treated animals tended to have a higher score than the controls (p = 0.09). Neutrophil polymorphonuclear (PMN) infiltration was more pronounced in the nicotine group compared with the VNS group (p = 0.015) but not with the controls. TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, CINC-3, and TATc were elevated in all groups (NS). In this model of established sepsis, posttreatment by VNS was associated with increased survival, while nicotine administration increased lung PMN infiltration and mortality. Nicotine-induced bacterial clearance impairment and nicotine systemic effects may explain these observations. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
PubMed | Institute Of Pathologie Et Genetique and Free University of Colombia
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Mucosal immunology | Year: 2015
The ectonucleotidases CD39 and CD73 sequentially degrade the extracellular ATP pool and release immunosuppressive adenosine, thereby regulating inflammatory responses. This control is likely to be critical in the gastrointestinal tract where high levels of ATP are released in particular by commensal bacteria. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the involvement of the adenosinergic regulation in the intestine of mice in steady-state conditions and on acute infection with Toxoplasma gondii. We show that both conventional (Tconv) and regulatory (Treg) CD4(+) T lymphocytes express CD39 and CD73 in the intestine of naive mice. CD73 expression was downregulated during acute infection with T. gondii, leading to impaired capacity to produce adenosine. Interestingly, the expression of adenosine receptors was maintained and treatment with receptor agonists limited immunopathology and dysbiosis, suggesting that the activation of adenosine receptors may constitute an efficient approach to control intestinal inflammation associated with decreased ectonucleotidase expression.