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Aubert S.,Institute Of Pathologie | Wavreille G.,Service dOrthopedie B
European Journal of Radiology | Year: 2013

Neoplasms of neurogenic origin account for about 12% of all benign and 8% of all malignant soft tissue neoplasms. Traumatic neuroma, Morton neuroma, lipomatosis of a nerve, nerve sheath ganglion, perineurioma, benign and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNST) are included in this group of pathologies. Clinical and radiologic evaluation of patients with neurogenic tumors and pseudotumors often reveals distinctive features. In this context, advanced imaging techniques, especially ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance (MR) play an important role in the characterization of these lesions. Imaging findings such as location of a soft tissue mass in the region of a major nerve, nerve entering or exiting the mass, fusiform shape, abnormalities of the muscle supplied by the nerve, split-fat sign, target sign and fascicular appearance should always evoke a peripheric nerve sheath neoplasm. Although no single imaging finding or combination of findings allows definitive differentiation between benign from malign peripheric neurogenic tumors, both US and MR imaging may show useful features that can lead us to a correct diagnosis and improve patient treatment. Traumatic neuromas and Morton neuromas are commonly associated to an amputation stump or are located in the intermetatarsal space. Lipomatosis of a nerve usually appears as a nerve enlargement, with thickened nerve fascicles, embedded in evenly distributed fat. Nerve sheath ganglion has a cystic appearance and commonly occurs at the level of the knee. Intraneural perineuroma usually affects young people and manifests as a focal and fusiform nerve enlargement. In this article, we review clinical characteristics and radiologic appearances of these neurogenic lesions, observing pathologic correlation, when possible. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.


Altamirano J.,CIBER ISCIII | Miquel R.,CIBER ISCIII | Katoonizadeh A.,University Hospital Gasthuisberg | Abraldes J.G.,CIBER ISCIII | And 28 more authors.
Gastroenterology | Year: 2014

Background & Aims There is no histologic classification system to determine prognoses of patients with alcoholic hepatitis (AH). We identified histologic features associated with disease severity and created a histologic scoring system to predict short-term (90-day) mortality. Methods We analyzed data from 121 patients admitted to the Liver Unit (Hospital Clinic, Barcelona, Spain) from January 2000 to January 2008 with features of AH and developed a histologic scoring system to determine the risk of death using logistic regression. The system was tested and updated in a test set of 96 patients from 5 academic centers in the United States and Europe, and a semiquantitative scoring system called the Alcoholic Hepatitis Histologic Score (AHHS) was developed. The system was validated in an independent set of 109 patients. Interobserver agreement was evaluated by weighted κ statistical analysis. Results The degree of fibrosis, degree of neutrophil infiltration, type of bilirubinostasis, and presence of megamitochondria were independently associated with 90-day mortality. We used these 4 parameters to develop the AHHS to identify patients with a low (0-3 points), moderate (4-5 points), or high (6-9 points) risk of death within 90 days (3%, 19%, and 51%, respectively; P <.0001). The AHHS estimated 90-day mortality in the training and test sets with an area under the receiver operating characteristic value of 0.77 (95% confidence interval, 0.71-0.83). Interrater agreement values were 0.65 for fibrosis, 0.86 for bilirubinostasis, 0.60 for neutrophil infiltration, and 0.46 for megamitochondria. Interestingly, the type of bilirubinostasis predicted the development of bacterial infections. Conclusions We identified histologic features associated with the severity of AH and developed a patient classification system that might be used in clinical decision making.


Do Cao C.,Service dendocrinologie et des maladies metaboliques | Aubert S.,Institute Of Pathologie | Trinel C.,Service dendocrinologie et des maladies metaboliques | Odou M.-F.,Institute Of Biochimie Et Biologie Moleculaire Pole Of Biologie Pathologie Genetique | And 2 more authors.
Annales d'Endocrinologie | Year: 2015

Parathyroid carcinoma is a little-known cancer, difficult to diagnose. We focus this short review on the current diagnostic criteria, the classification and the evaluation tools for this cancer based on latest publications. © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS.


Hebrant A.,Free University of Colombia | Floor S.,Free University of Colombia | Saiselet M.,Free University of Colombia | Antoniou A.,Free University of Colombia | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is the most lethal form of thyroid neoplasia and represents an end stage of thyroid tumor progression. No effective treatment exists so far. In this study, we analyzed the miRNA expression profiles of 11 ATC by microarrays and their relationship with the mRNA expression profiles of the same 11 ATC samples. ATC show distinct miRNA expression profiles compared to other less aggressive thyroid tumor types. ATC show 18 commonly deregulated miRNA compared to normal thyroid tissue (17 downregulated and 1 upregulated miRNA). First, the analysis of a combined approach of the mRNA gene expression and of the bioinformatically predicted mRNA targets of the deregulated miRNA suggested a role for these regulations in the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) process in ATC. Second, the direct interaction between one of the upregulated mRNA target, the LOX gene which is an EMT key player, and a downregulated miRNA, the miR-29a, was experimentally validated by a luciferase assay in HEK cell. Third, we confirmed that the ATC tissue is composed of about 50% of tumor associated macrophages (TAM) and suggested, by taking into account our data and published data, their most likely direct or paracrine intercommunication between them and the thyroid tumor cells, amplifying the tumor aggressiveness. Finally, we demonstrated by in situ hybridization a specific thyrocyte localization of 3 of the deregulated miRNA: let-7g, miR-29a and miR-30e and we pointed out the importance of identifying the cell type localization before drawing any conclusion on the physiopathological role of a given gene. © 2014 Hébrant et al.


Glowacki F.,EA4483 | Savary G.,EA4483 | Gnemmi V.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Gnemmi V.,Institute Of Pathologie | And 15 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of noncoding RNA acting at a post-transcriptional level to control the expression of large sets of target mRNAs. While there is evidence that miRNAs deregulation plays a causative role in various complex disorders, their role in fibrotic kidney diseases is largely unexplored. Here, we found a strong up-regulation of miR-21 in the kidneys of mice with unilateral ureteral obstruction and also in the kidneys of patients with severe kidney fibrosis. In addition, mouse primary fibroblasts derived from fibrotic kidneys exhibited higher miR-21 expression level compared to those derived from normal kidneys. Expression of miR-21 in normal primary kidney fibroblasts was induced upon TGFβ exposure, a key growth factor involved in fibrogenesis. Finally, ectopic expression of miR-21 in primary kidney fibroblasts was sufficient to promote myofibroblast differentiation. As circulating miRNAs have been suggested as promising non-invasive biomarkers, we further assess whether circulating miR-21 levels are associated with renal fibrosis using sera from 42 renal transplant recipients, categorized according to their renal fibrosis severity, evaluated on allograft biopsies (Interstitial Fibrosis/Tubular Atrophy (IF/TA). Circulating miR-21 levels are significantly increased in patients with severe IF/TA grade (IF/TA grade 3: 3.0±1.0 vs lower grade of fibrosis: 1.5±1.2; p = 0.001). By contrast, circulating miR-21 levels were not correlated with other renal histological lesions. In a multivariate linear regression model including IF/TA grade and estimated GFR, independent associations were found between circulating miR-21 levels and IF/TA score (ß = 0.307, p = 0.03), and between miR-21 levels and aMDRD (ß = -0.398, p = 0.006). Altogether, these data suggest miR-21 has a key pathogenic role in kidney fibrosis and may represent a novel, predictive and reliable blood marker of kidney fibrosis. © 2013 Glowacki et al.


PubMed | Institute Of Pathologie, Makassed General Hospital and Service de Pneumologie Pediatrique
Type: | Journal: Case reports in pediatrics | Year: 2016

Lung tumors are extremely rare in the pediatric population, comprising only 0.2% of all malignancies in children. Among them, mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is even rarer with a reported frequency of 0.1% to 0.2%. MEC is defined by the World Health Organization as a tumor characterized by a combination of mucus-secreting, squamous, and intermediate cell types. We describe the case of a 4-year-old girl who presented with a history of intermittent fever and nonproductive cough of 1-month duration after foreign body aspiration. The chest X-ray showed complete collapse of the left lung. After removal of the foreign body, the lung expanded well after. However, the control chest X-ray done after 5 days showed again complete collapse of the left lung. The biopsy specimen taken during bronchoscopy confirmed the diagnosis of low-grade MEC. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) confirmed the presence of MAML2 rearrangement. Complete surgical resection with preservation of lung parenchyma was performed. No adjuvant therapy was needed. Repeat bronchoscopy was performed 2 months after surgery and showed no recurrence of the tumor. In conclusion, a remote chest X-ray after removal of a foreign body is necessary to avoid missing a rare serious underlying disease such as MEC. According to the size and the location of the tumor, complete surgical removal is sufficient without additional treatment in case of low-grade tumor. The presence of MAML2 rearrangement confers a favorable outcome and may have long-term implications for the clinical management.


PubMed | Lille 2 University of Health and Law and Institute Of Pathologie
Type: Case Reports | Journal: Annales de pathologie | Year: 2015

We report the case of a 3-year-old child who died from the consequences of a cardio-respiratory arrest despite reanimation procedures. Echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a mass of the free wall of the left ventricle. Autopsy confirmed the existence of a solitary myocardial tumor, well-circumscribed, firm, with a whitish and trabeculated cut surface. Histologically, the tumor consisted of bundles of spindle-shaped and regular cells mingling with collagen and elastic fibers, insinuating themselves between myocytes in periphery. Calcifications were present. After immunohistochemistry, the cells were highlighted by anti-actin smooth muscle antibody; but they were not highlighted by anti-desmin, anti- catenin and anti-Ki67 antibodies. The diagnosis of cardiac fibroma was made. The primary cardiac tumors of child are rare and usually benign. They are essentially represented by rhabdomyoma and fibroma. Cardiac fibroma mostly occurs during the first year of life. It can be revealed by cardiac insufficiency, arrhythmia, chest pain or sudden death.


PubMed | Service dHepato Gastroenterologie, Service de Chirurgie Digestive et Transplantation, French Institute of Health and Medical Research and Institute Of Pathologie
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pancreatology : official journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et al.] | Year: 2016

CA 19-9 is the gold standard biomarker of pancreatic adenocarcinoma despite several weaknesses in particular a high rate of false positives or negatives. CA-125 corresponding to MUC16 and galectin-3, a lectin able to interact with mucin-associated carbohydrates, are tumor-associated proteins. We investigated whether combined measurement of CA 19-9, galectin-3 and CA-125 may help to better discriminate pancreatic adenocarcinoma versus non-malignant pancreatic diseases.We evaluated by immunohistochemistry the expression of MUC4, MUC16 (CA-125) and galectin-3 in 31 pancreatic adenocarcinomas. We measured CA 19-9, CA-125 and Gal-3 in the serum from patients with pancreatic benign diseases (n = 58) or adenocarcinoma (n = 44). Clinical performance of the 3 biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis was analyzed.By immunohistochemistry, MUC16 and Gal-3 were expressed in 74% and 84% of adenocarcinomas versus 0% and 3.2% in peri-tumoral regions, respectively. At the serum level, CA 19-9 and CA125 were significantly higher in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma whereas Gal-3 levels did not differ. The performance of CA 19-9 for cancer detection was higher than those of CA-125 or Gal-3 by ROC analysis. However, CA-125 offers the highest specificity for malignancy (81%) because of an absence of false positives among type 2 diabetic patients. Cancer deaths assessed 6 or 12 months after diagnosis varied according to the initial CA-125 level (p < 0.006).Gal-3 is not an interesting biomarker for pancreatic adenocarcinoma detection. CA 19-9 alone exhibits the best performance but measuring CA-125 provides complementary information in terms of diagnosis and prognosis.


PubMed | Service dendocrinologie et des maladies metaboliques, Institute Of Biochimie Et Biologie Moleculaire, Reims University Hospital Center and Institute Of Pathologie
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Annales d'endocrinologie | Year: 2015

Parathyroid carcinoma is a little-known cancer, difficult to diagnose. We focus this short review on the current diagnostic criteria, the classification and the evaluation tools for this cancer based on latest publications.


Mathieu V.,Free University of Colombia | De Lassalle E.M.,Institute Of Pathologie | Toelen J.,Catholic University of Leuven | Mohr T.,Medical University of Vienna | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Investigative Dermatology | Year: 2012

Aggressiveness of advanced melanomas relates in part to their marked propensity to develop neoangiogenesis and metastases. Among its numerous pro-cancer roles, galectin (gal)-1 expressed and/or secreted by both cancer and endothelial cells stimulates proliferation and angiogenesis. This study first shows that gal-1 is more highly expressed at both mRNA and protein levels than its congeners in melanomas and particularly in advanced lesions. The roles of gal-1 were further investigated in vivo in the highly proliferating and vascularized pseudometastatic B16F10 mouse melanoma model using stable knockdown B16F10 cells and wild-type versus gal-1 knockout mice, and then in vitro in B16F10 tumoral and lung microvascular cells. Gal-1 depletion in the B16F10 tumor cells but not in the tumor-bearing mice significantly increased melanoma-bearing mice survival. Tumor-derived gal-1 thus seems to have more critical roles than the host-derived one. In fact, gal-1 displays distinct effects on the H-Ras-dependent p53/p21 pathways: in primary lung microvessel endothelial cells, gal-1 seems to be involved in the maintenance of senescent status through the induction of both p53 and p21 while it stimulates B16F10 cancer cell proliferation through a p53/p21 decrease. Altogether, these data point to gal-1 as a potential target to combat melanomas. © 2012 The Society for Investigative Dermatology.

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