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Campos-Salinas J.,Institute of Parasitology and Biomedicine | Cavazzuti A.,Institute of Parasitology and Biomedicine | Forte-Lago I.,Institute of Parasitology and Biomedicine | Caro M.,Institute of Parasitology and Biomedicine | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2014

Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is an anti-inflammatory neuropeptide recently identified as a potential antimicrobial peptide. To overcome the metabolic limitations of VIP, we modified the native peptide sequence and generated two stable synthetic analogues (VIP51 and VIP51(6-30)) with better antimicrobial profiles. Herein we investigate the effects of both VIP analogues on cell viability, membrane integrity, and ultrastructure of various bacterial strains and Leishmania species. We found that the two VIP derivatives kill various non-pathogenic and pathogenic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as the parasite Leishmania major through a mechanism that depends on the interaction with certain components of the microbial surface, the formation of pores, and the disruption of the surface membrane. The cytotoxicity of the VIP derivatives is specific for pathogens, because they do not affect the viability of mammalian cells. Docking simulations indicate that the chemical changes made in the analogues are critical to increase their antimicrobial activities. Consequently, we found that the native VIP is less potent as an antibacterial and fails as a leishmanicidal. Noteworthy from a therapeutic point of view is that treatment with both derivatives increases the survival and reduces bacterial load and inflammation in mice with polymicrobial sepsis. Moreover, treatment with VIP51(6-30) is very effective at reducing lesion size and parasite burden in a model of cutaneous leishmaniasis. These results indicate that the VIP analogues emerge as attractive alternatives for treating drug-resistant infectious diseases and provide key insights into a rational design of novel agents against these pathogens. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Published in the U.S.A.


Del Moral R.M.G.,Provincial UGC Intercentre | Gomez-Morales M.,Provincial UGC Intercentre | Hernandez-Cortes P.,University of Granada | Aguilar D.,University of Granada | And 11 more authors.
The Scientific World Journal | Year: 2013

We test the hypothesis that PARP inhibition can decrease acute tubular necrosis (ATN) and other renal lesions related to prolonged cold ischemia/reperfusion (IR) in kidneys preserved at 4°C in University of Wisconsin (UW) solution. Material and Methods. We used 30 male Parp1 +/+ wild-type and 15 male Parp10/0 knockout C57BL/6 mice. Fifteen of these wild-type mice were pretreated with 3,4-dihydro-5-[4-(1- piperidinyl)butoxyl]-1(2H)-isoquinolinone (DPQ) at a concentration of 15 mg/kg body weight, used as PARP inhibitor. Subgroups of mice were established (A: IR 45 min/6 h; B: IR + 48 h in UW solution; and C: IR + 48 h in UW solution plus DPQ). We processed samples for morphological, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and western-blotting studies. Results. Prolonged cold ischemia time in UW solution increased PARP-1 expression and kidney injury. Preconditioning with PARP inhibitor DPQ plus DPQ supplementation in UW solution decreased PARP-1 nuclear expression in renal tubules and renal damage. Parp10/0 knockout mice were more resistant to IR-induced renal lesion. In conclusion, PARP inhibition attenuates ATN and other IR-related renal lesions in mouse kidneys under prolonged cold storage in UW solution. If confirmed, these data suggest that pharmacological manipulation of PARP activity may have salutary effects in cold-stored organs at transplantation. © 2013 Raimundo M. G. del Moral et al.


Medrano L.M.,Hospital Clinico San Carlos | Taxonera C.,Hospital Clinico San Carlos | Marquez A.,Institute of Parasitology and Biomedicine | Barreiro-de Acosta M.,Hospital Clinico Universitario Of Santiago Of Compostela | And 11 more authors.
Human Immunology | Year: 2014

Infliximab (IFX) is a valid treatment for Crohn's disease (CD), but a relevant percentage of patients do not benefit from this therapy. In the Japanese population, the response to IFX was associated with markers in the TNF receptor superfamily 1A (TNFRSF1A) and 1B (TNFRSF1B) genes. We aimed to replicate the association previously described in the Japanese population and to ascertain the role of TNF receptors as modulators of the response to IFX. We studied 297 white Spanish CD patients with a known response to IFX: 238 responders and 59 primary nonresponders. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were analyzed: rs767455 in TNFRSF1A and rs1061622, rs1061624, and rs3397 in TNFRSF1B. Comparisons between groups were performed with chi-square tests or the Fisher's exact test. Different features (sex, age, disease duration, smoking among others) were evaluated as possible confounding factors. No significant association was found between the studied TNFRSF1A polymorphisms and response to IFX. In the TNFRSF1B gene, the haplotype rs1061624_A-rs3397_T was significantly increased in nonresponders: p= 0.015, OR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.09-2.90; and an increased frequency of rs1061622_G carriers was observed in patients with remission: p= 0.033 vs nonresponders and p= 0.023 vs patients with a partial response. Our results support a role of TNFRSF1B gene variants in the response to IFX in CD patients. © 2013 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics.


PubMed | Hospital Universitario La Paz, Institute of Parasitology and Biomedicine, Hospital Clinico Universitario Of Santiago Of Compostela, Hospital Clinico San Carlos and 5 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Human immunology | Year: 2013

Infliximab (IFX) is a valid treatment for Crohns disease (CD), but a relevant percentage of patients do not benefit from this therapy. In the Japanese population, the response to IFX was associated with markers in the TNF receptor superfamily 1A (TNFRSF1A) and 1B (TNFRSF1B) genes. We aimed to replicate the association previously described in the Japanese population and to ascertain the role of TNF receptors as modulators of the response to IFX. We studied 297 white Spanish CD patients with a known response to IFX: 238 responders and 59 primary nonresponders. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were analyzed: rs767455 in TNFRSF1A and rs1061622, rs1061624, and rs3397 in TNFRSF1B. Comparisons between groups were performed with chi-square tests or the Fishers exact test. Different features (sex, age, disease duration, smoking among others) were evaluated as possible confounding factors. No significant association was found between the studied TNFRSF1A polymorphisms and response to IFX. In the TNFRSF1B gene, the haplotype rs1061624_A-rs3397_T was significantly increased in nonresponders: p = 0.015, OR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.09-2.90; and an increased frequency of rs1061622_G carriers was observed in patients with remission: p = 0.033 vs nonresponders and p = 0.023 vs patients with a partial response. Our results support a role of TNFRSF1B gene variants in the response to IFX in CD patients.


Martinez-Romero R.,University of Jaén | Canuelo A.,University of Jaén | Siles E.,University of Jaén | Oliver F.J.,Institute of Parasitology and Biomedicine | Martinez-Lara E.,University of Jaén
Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2012

The physiological response to hypobaric hypoxia represents a complex network of biochemical pathways in which the nitrergic system plays an important role. Previous studies have provided evidence for an interplay between the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) under hypoxia. Here, we evaluate the potential involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in the cross talk between these two proteins. With this aim, we studied comparatively the effect of pharmacological inhibitors of NO production or PARP activity in the response of the mouse cerebral cortex to 4 h of exposure to a simulated altitude of 31,000 ft. Particularly, we analyzed the NO and reactive oxygen species production, the expression of NO synthase (NOS) isoforms, PARP-1 activity, HIF-1α expression and HIF-1 transcriptional activity, the protein level of the factor inhibiting HIF, and, finally, beclin-1 and fractin expression, as markers of cellular damage. Our results demonstrate that the reduction of NO level did not affect reactive oxygen species production but significantly 1) dampened the posthypoxic increase in neuronal NOS and inducible NOS expression without altering endothelial NOS protein level; 2) prevented PARP activation; 3) decreased HIF-1α response to hypoxia; 4) achieved a higher long-term HIF-1 transcriptional activity by reducing factor inhibiting HIF expression; and 5) reduced hypoxic damage. The pharmacological inhibition of PARP reproduced the NOS expression pattern and the HIF-1α response observed in NOSinhibited mice, supporting its involvement in the NO-dependent regulation of hypoxia. As a whole, these results provide new data about the molecular mechanism underlying the beneficial effects of controlling NO production under hypobaric hypoxic conditions. Copyright © 2012 the American Physiological Society.


Bienvenu A.-L.,University of Lyon | Gonzalez-Rey E.,Institute of Parasitology and Biomedicine | Picot S.,University of Lyon
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2010

Fatalities caused by parasitic infections often occur as a result of tissue injury that results from a form of host-cell death known as apoptosis. However, instead of being pathogenic, parasite-induced apoptosis may facilitate host survival. Consequently, it is of utmost importance to decipher and understand the process and the role of apoptosis induced or controlled by parasites in humans. Despite this, few studies provide definitive knowledge of parasite-induced host-cell apoptosis. Here, the focus is on a consideration of host-cell apoptosis as either a pathogenic feature or as a factor enabling parasite survival and development. Cell death by apoptotic-like mechanisms could be described as a ride to death with a return ticket, as initiation of the pathway may be reversed, with the potential that it could be manipulated for therapeutic purposes. The management of host-cell apoptosis could thus be an adjunctive factor for parasitic disease treatment. Evidence that the apoptotic process could be reversed by anti-apoptotic drugs has recently been obtained, leading to the possibility of host-cell rescue after injury. An important issue will be to predict the beneficial or deleterious effects of controlling human cell death by apoptotic-like mechanisms during parasitic diseases. © 2010 Bienvenu et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Prasse A.,University Hospital Freiburg | Zissel G.,University Hospital Freiburg | Lutzen N.,University Hospital Freiburg | Schupp J.,University Hospital Freiburg | And 8 more authors.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2010

Rationale: Previous studies suggest an important immunoregulatory role of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in experimental models of chronic noninfectious inflammation. Sarcoidosis is characterized by noncaseating epitheloid cell granulomas, where excessive tumor necrosis factor-α production by pulmonary macrophages plays a critical role in granuloma formation and disease progression, which may lead to fatal organ dysfunction. Objectives: To test whether inhaled VIP has an immunoregulatory role. Sarcoid alveolitis was used as a prototype of immune-mediated chronic lung inflammation. Methods: In an open clinical phase II study, we treated 20 patients with histologically proved sarcoidosis and active disease with nebulized VIP for 4 weeks. Measurements and Main Results: VIP inhalation was safe, well-tolerated, and significantly reduced the production of tumor necrosis factor-α by cells isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of these patients. VIP treatment significantly increased the numbers of bronchoalveolar lavage CD4 +CD127-CD25+ T cells, which showed regulatory activities on conventional effector T cells. In vitro experiments demonstrated the capacity of VIP to convert naive CD4+CD25- T cells into CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells, suggesting the generation of peripheral regulatory T cells by VIP treatment. Conclusions: This study is the first to show the immunoregulatory effect of VIP in humans, and supports the notion of inhaled VIP as an attractive future therapy to dampen exaggerated immune responses in lung disorders. Thus, the inhalation of neuropeptides may be developed into a new therapeutic principle for chronic inflammatory lung disorders in humans.


Chan N.,University of Toronto | Pires I.M.,University of Oxford | Bencokova Z.,University of Oxford | Coackley C.,University of Toronto | And 8 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2010

Acute and chronic hypoxia exists within the three-dimensional microenvironment of solid tumors and drives therapy resistance, genetic instability, and metastasis. Replicating cells exposed to either severe acute hypoxia (16 hours with 0.02% O2) followed by reoxygenation or moderate chronic hypoxia (72 hours with 0.2% O2) treatments have decreased homologous recombination (HR) protein expression and function. As HR defects are synthetically lethal with poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) inhibition, we evaluated the sensitivity of repair-defective hypoxic cells to PARP inhibition. Although PARP inhibition itself did not affect HR expression or function, we observed increased clonogenic killing in HR-deficient hypoxic cells following chemical inhibition of PARP1. This effect was partially reversible by RAD51 overexpression. PARP1-/- murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) showed a proliferative disadvantage under hypoxic gassing when compared with PARP1+/+ MEFs. PARP-inhibited hypoxic cells accumulated γH2AX and 53BP1 foci as a consequence of altered DNA replication firing during S phase-specific cell killing. In support of this proposed mode of action, PARP inhibitor-treated xenografts displayed increased γH2AX and cleaved caspase-3 expression in RAD51-deficient hypoxic subregions in vivo, which was associated with decreased ex vivo clonogenic survival following experimental radiotherapy. This is the first report of selective cell killing of HR-defective hypoxic cells in vivo as a consequence of microenvironment-mediated "contextual synthetic lethality." As all solid tumors contain aggressive hypoxic cells, this may broaden the clinical utility of PARP and DNA repair inhibition, either alone or in combination with radiotherapy and chemotherapy, even in tumor cells lacking synthetically lethal, genetic mutations. ©2010 AACR.


PubMed | Institute of Parasitology and Biomedicine
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Current pharmaceutical design | Year: 2010

Because there are no particular molecular signatures of self, autoimmunity is the inevitable evolutionary price of being able to make effective responses against a wide variety of pathogens by the immune system. Without the various phenomena referred to as immune tolerance, the organism would surely self-destruct. Considerable evidence suggests that various endogenous neuropeptides play a major role in the education of our immune system to be self-tolerant. The fact that neuropeptides regulate various layers involved in maintenance of tolerance, including regulation of the balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses and between self-reactive Th1/Th17 cells and regulatory T cells, makes them attractive candidates for the development of new therapies for the treatment of autoimmune disorders. Here we use the vasoactive intestinal peptide of a prototype of immunomodulatory neuropeptide to review the most relevant data found for other neuropeptides with similar characteristics, including melanocyte-stimulating hormone, urocortin, adrenomedullin, neuropeptide Y, cortistatin and ghrelin. We also evaluate the challenges that must be overcome before achieving their clinical application and offer our opinion on how a physiologically functional neuropeptide system contributes to general health.


PubMed | Institute of Parasitology and Biomedicine
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Current opinion in pharmacology | Year: 2010

Various neuropeptides have emerged recently as potent immunomodulatory factors with potential for their therapeutic use in immune disorders. Here we highlight the most recent data relevant in the field and we offer our opinion on how neuropeptide therapy might impact clinical immune diseases, and the challenges in this field that must be overcome before achieving medical progress. We also review recent reports describing the antimicrobial effects showed by some neuropeptides and the therapeutic, physiological, and evolutionary consequences of this new finding. Finally, we discuss how a physiologically functional neuropeptide system contributes to general health and how neuropeptides educate our immune system to be tolerant.

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