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Amin O.M.,Institute of Parasitic Diseases | Evans P.,Brigham Young University | Heckmann R.A.,Brigham Young University | El-Naggar A.M.,Brigham Young University | El-Naggar A.M.,Ain Shams University
Parasitology Research

Mediorhynchus africanus n. sp. is described from specimens collected from the helmeted guinea fowls, Numida meliagris Linn. 1758 in Kruger National Park and elsewhere in subSaharan Africa from the same and other galliform birds. These specimens were previously assigned to Mediorhynchus gallinarum Bhaleroa (Proc Zool Soc Lond Ser B Syst Morph 107:199-203, 1937) described from chickens, Gallus gallus L. in India and subsequently reported from other Asian countries. The identification of the African forms as M. gallinarum was based on similarities in the structure and measurements of the proboscis, proboscis armature and receptacle, lemnisci, and reproductive organs. A detailed study of specimens from South Africa and descriptions reported from elsewhere in Africa revealed marked differences that clearly distinguish the African material as new species. The African specimens are pseudo-segmented and flattened, the proboscis has two prominent apical pores, sensory pits are prevalent throughout the trunk, the posterior end of the female is broad with dorso-terminal dome-like extension opposite the subterminal gonopore, and the eggs are large. The Asian specimens from Indonesia and elsewhere are cylindrical and non-segmented, the proboscis lacks prominent apical pores, sensory pits are rare on the trunk, the posterior end of the female is pointed with a terminal gonopore, and the eggs are markedly smaller. We used DNA sequence from one mitochondrial gene (cytochrome oxidase subunit I) and one nuclear gene (18S ribosomal RNA) to infer the phylogenetic relationships of M. africanus and M. gallinarum and selected Acanthocephala. Medioryhnchus is monophyletic and M. africanus and M. gallinarum are allopatric sister species (9.7 % sequence divergence). All findings indicate that M. africanus should be ranked as a separate species. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

De-jian S.,Institute of Parasitic Diseases | Xu-li D.,Shandong Institute of Parasitic Diseases | Ji-hui D.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention
Infectious Diseases of Poverty

China used to be one of the most heavily endemic countries for lymphatic filariasis (LF) in the world. There were 864 endemic counties/cities in 16 provinces/autonomous regions/municipalities (P/A/M) with a total population of 330 million at risk of infection. Since the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, the Chinese Government has designated the control of the disease to be a top priority. Due to decades of sustained efforts, close cooperation related to LF control among government departments, and active participation of endemic populations, an all-round campaign for prevention and control has been carried out vigorously and successfully. Over many years, great achievements have been made through persistent endeavors of Chinese scientists and disease control workers. The ultimate goal to eliminate LF in the country was achieved in 2006. © 2013 De-jian et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Xiao N.,Institute of Parasitic Diseases
Zhongguo ji sheng chong xue yu ji sheng chong bing za zhi = Chinese journal of parasitology & parasitic diseases

To find an effective strategy of implementing health education in Tibetan Regions so as to make echinococcosis control sustainable at a large scale. During July to November of 2008, surveys were conducted on health education requirements among various populations in the form of questionnaire and group discussion in endemic areas of echinococcosis in three counties of the Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan. Based on the obtained results, health education materials suitable for different populations were designed. The materials were applied for conducting health education in field at Tagong Township, Kangding of Ganzi in October, 2009. By the survey in May, 2010, the improved effect on knowledge and behavior change was compared before and after (6 months later) health education in order to assess the usefulness of these materials. Simultaneously, Xinduqiao Township of Kangding was selected as control. This town is neighboring to the study area with similar natural and demographic conditions, in which no health education activities related to the study was implemented. Various populations showed their interested requirements for health education materials and ways. Based on the information collected, a series of materials were designed and applied for health education activities in field. The results indicated that, compared with the data before health education, improvement of the knowledge and behaviors against echinococcosis among students and local residents showed significant increase (P < 0.05), but only one knowledge point about the importance of washing hands before meal among students showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) in spite of the rates increasing from 88.6% (78/88) before health education to 95.5% (84/88) after education. The local officers and monks also showed to some extent improvement on behavior manners. The rate of correct treatment of livestock viscera increased from 37.1% (13/35) and 30.3% (10/33) before the education to 82.9% (29/35) and 78.8% (26/33) (P < 0.01), while the rate of not feeding stray dogs among monks was 6.4% (3/47) before and 10.6% (5/47) (P > 0.05) after the education. The knowledge-increasing and behavior-improving rates on playing dogs among the students, residents and monks increased by 182% and 193%, 42.8% and 54.3%, 6.4% and 14.9%, respectively. There was no considerable change in the control township. The materials designed for health education are acceptable by most populations. The improvement rate of knowledge and behaviors is considerable among the groups. Use of the materials receives expected effect on health education and health promotion. Source

Amin O.M.,Institute of Parasitic Diseases | Van Ha N.,Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology
Parasitology Research

Four species of echinorhynchid acanthocephalans were collected from marine fish off Cat Ba Island, Halong Bay, Gulf of Tonkin, Vietnam, in the spring of 2009. Acanthocephalus halongensis n. sp. (Echinorhynchidae) from the redtail scad, Decapterus kurroides Bleeker 1855 (Carangidae), has a unique proboscis armature with a spiniform basal hook with lateral root and an incomplete receptacle wall posteriorly. Gorgorhynchus tonkinensis n. sp. (Rhadinorhynchidae) also from D. kurroides, has long, slender, winding lemnisci, many epidermal nuclei, and a narrow anterior trunk with a shoulder armed with 20 circles of tightly packed spines, the posterior four circles of which have abruptly larger spines than those in the anterior circles. Neorhadinorhynchus atypicalis n. sp. (Cavisomidae) from the rabbitfish, Siganus fuscescens (Houttuyn 1782) (Siganidae), has the largest number of proboscis hooks per row, testes wider than long, and four clustered cement glands. Micracanthorhynchica kuwaitensis Amin and Sey 1996 (Rhadinorhynchidae) from the spottail needlefish Strongylura strongylura (van Hasselt 1823) (Belonidae) was similar to specimens originally described from the Arabian Gulf off the Kuwaiti coast. These acanthocephalans were collected in small numbers but stood out as uniquely and considerably different from their closest relatives to warrant their reporting. All species of acanthocephalans and their host and geographic distribution are described, and a key to the species of Gorgorhynchus is provided. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source

Amin O.M.,Institute of Parasitic Diseases | Ha N.V.,Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology | Ha D.N.,Institute of Ecology and Biological Science

The occurrence of acanthocephalans of the genus Neoechinorhynchus Stiles and Hassall, 1905 in Vietnamese waters is reported for the first time. Six new species are described from seven species of marine fish of the families Belonidae, Clupeidae, Megalopidae, Mugilidae, and Sciaenidae, collected in Halong Bay of the eastern seaboard of Vietnam in 2008 and 2009. These are Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) plaquensis n. sp. characterized by dermal plaques covering the entire trunk; Neoechinorhynchus manubriensis n. sp. with very long anterior proboscis hooks having roots with prominent anterior manubria and very small and equal middle and posterior hooks, two pseudoretractors in the receptacle, simple vagina, and terminal gonopore; Neoechinorhynchus pennahia n. sp. with equal anterior and middle proboscis and somewhat smaller posterior hooks, and terminal female gonopore; Neoechinorhynchus ampullata with many giant nuclei in the body wall and lemnisci and a parareceptacle structure complex which includes pumping ampullas reported for the first time; Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) longinucleatus n. sp. with very long giant nuclei in the Lemnisci, anteriorly twisted vagina, and subterminal female gonopore. Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) ascus n. sp. is the second species of Neoechinorhynchus found with the parareceptacle structure/ampulla complex. Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) johnii Yamaguti, 1929 of Bilqees, 1972 is not W johnii because of proboscis armature and other discrepancies with the Yamaguti material. Notes on host distribution and feeding habits are also included. Source

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