Institute Of Paleontologie Humaine

Paris, France

Institute Of Paleontologie Humaine

Paris, France
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Vialet A.,Institute Of Paleontologie Humaine | Guipert G.,Antenne Of Linstitut Of Paleontologie Humaine | Jianing H.,Beihang University | Xiaobo F.,CAS Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology | And 5 more authors.
Comptes Rendus - Palevol | Year: 2010

Recent applications of 3D virtual imaging techniques in human palaeontology have increased the possibilities and the accuracy of anthropological analysis. Two examples are given for the reconsideration of fossils discovered more than 20 years ago, thanks to this new technology. The Lower and Middle Pleistocene skulls from Yunxian and Nankin in China, which were damaged in the process of fossilization, have been virtually reconstructed. A detailed reinvestigation has been conducted by considering those reconstructed skulls and their unpublished characters (i.e., inner anatomical features inaccessible until now). The results of this analysis provide new information about the early hominids of China and contribute to the discussion of variability in Homo erectus. © 2010 Académie des sciences.

Bocherens H.,University of Tübingen | Drucker D.G.,University of Tübingen | Germonpre M.,Royal Belgian Institute Of Natural Sciences | Laznickova-Galetova M.,University of West Bohemia | And 7 more authors.
Quaternary International | Year: 2015

The Gravettian site of Předmostí I in the central Moravian Plain has yielded a rich and diverse large mammal fauna dated around 25-27,000 14CyearsBP (ca. 29,500-31,500calBP). This fauna includes numerous carnivores (cave lion, wolf, brown bear, polar fox, wolverine) and herbivores (reindeer, large bovine, red deer, muskox, horse, woolly rhinoceros, woolly mammoth) whose trophic position could be reconstructed using stable isotopic tracking (δ13C, δ15N, δ34S) of bone collagen (n=63). Among large canids, two morphotypes, "Pleistocene wolves" and "Palaeolithic dogs", were considered, and two human bones attributed to the Gravettian assemblage of Předmostí I were also sampled. The trophic system around the Gravettian settlement of Předmostí I showed the typical niche partitioning among herbivores and carnivores seen in other mammoth-steppe contexts. The contribution of the analyzed prey species to the diet of the predators, including humans, was evaluated using a Bayesian mixing model (SIAR). Lions included great amounts of reindeer/muskox and possibly bison in their diet, while Pleistocene wolves were more focused on horse and possibly mammoth. Strong reliance on mammoth meat was found for the human of the site, similarly to previously analyzed individuals from other Gravettian sites in Moravia. Interestingly, the large canids interpreted as "Palaeolithic dogs" had a high proportion of reindeer/muskox in their diet, while consumption of mammoth would be expected from the availability of this prey especially in case of close interaction with humans. The peculiar isotopic composition of the Palaeolithic dogs of Předmostí I may indicate some control of their dietary intake by Gravettian people, who could have use them more for transportation than hunting purpose. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

Vialet A.,Institute Of Paleontologie Humaine | Guipert G.,Antenne Of Linstitut Of Paleontologie Humaine | Cihat Alcicek M.,Pamukkale University
Comptes Rendus - Palevol | Year: 2012

Few human fossils are known in Turkey and no Homo erectus has been discovered until now. In this respect, the newly discovered partial skull from Kocabaş is very important: (1) to assess the pattern of the first settlements throughout the Old World; and (2) to document the extension of the species H. erectus to the west of continental Asia. Using CT data and 3D imaging techniques, this specimen was reconstructed and a more detailed analysis was done, including the inner anatomical features. The preliminary results of this study highlight that the fossil hominid from Kocabaş is close to the H. erectus species regarding the following cranial patterns: presence of a clear post-orbital constriction, strong development of the frontal brow-ridge with a depressed supratoral area in the lateral part, as well as endocranial patterns such as the development and orientation of the middle meningeal artery and the presence of a frontal bec. The Kocabaş skull is morphologically very close to the fossils from Zhoukoudian L-C. The partial Kocabaş skull is the oldest H. erectus known in Turkey and the only one from this species to have settled so far west in Asia. © 2011.

Lebatard A.-E.,Aix - Marseille University | Alcicek M.C.,Pamukkale University | Rochette P.,Aix - Marseille University | Khatib S.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 9 more authors.
Earth and Planetary Science Letters | Year: 2014

Since its discovery within a travertine quarry, the fragmentary cranium of the only known Turkish Homo erectus, the Kocabaş hominid, has led to conflicting biochronological estimations. First estimated to be ~500ka old, the partial skull presents a combination of archaic and evolved features that puts it as an intermediate specimen between the Dmanisi fossils (Homo georgicus) and the Chinese Zhoukoudian skulls (Homo erectus) respectively dated to 1.8 to ~0.8Ma. Here we present a multidisciplinary study combining sedimentological, paleontological and paleoanthropological observations together with cosmogenic nuclide concentration and paleomagnetic measurements to provide an absolute chronological framework for the Upper fossiliferous Travertine unit where the Kocabaş hominid and fauna were discovered. The 26Al/10Be burial ages determined on pebbles from conglomeratic levels framing the Upper fossiliferous Travertine unit, which exhibits an inverse polarity, constrains its deposition to before the Cobb Mountain sub-chron, that is between 1.22 and ~1.5Ma. The alternative match of the normal polarity recorded above the travertine with the Jaramillo subchron (lower limit 1.07 Ma) may also be marginally compatible with cosmogenic nuclides interpretation, thus the proposed minimum age of 1.1 Ma for the end of massive travertine deposition. The actual age of the fossils is likely to be in the 1.1-1.3 Ma range. This absolute date is in close agreement with the paleoanthropological conclusions based on morphometric comparisons implying that Kocabaş hominid belongs to the Homo erectus s.l. group that includes Chinese and African fossils, and is different from Middle and Upper Pleistocene specimens. Furthermore, this date is confirmed by the large mammal assemblage, typical of the late Villafranchian. Because it attests to the antiquity of human occupation of the Anatolian Peninsula and one of the waves of settlements out of Africa, this work challenges the current knowledge of the Homo erectus dispersal over Eurasia. © 2014 The Authors.

Mercier N.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Le Quellec J.-L.,CNRS | Hachid M.,CNRPAH | Agsous S.,Institute Of Paleontologie Humaine | Grenet M.,TRACES
Quaternary Geochronology | Year: 2012

The Tassili-n-Ajjer plateau is famous for its tens of thousands of pictographs discovered in the mid-XX th century. Despite extensive studies aimed at preserving this art inscribed on the World Heritage List, the antiquity of these paintings remains hotly debated. Because recent attempts at dating with radiocarbon failed to provide reliable results, an OSL dating study focused on Quaternary deposits preserved at the feet of painted walls and which can be connected to them was undertaken. Thirteen sediment samples were collected from below and above the palaeosol where the painters might have lived. The OSL results indicate that the paintings are younger than ∼9-10 ka, but unfortunately they do not allow us to narrow the time interval during which they were made. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

The fossil record of Panlhera pardus in Europe in the Early and Middle Pleistocene is scarce and the origin of this species thus remains unclear. The re-examination of material from some late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene sites, formerly assigned to various species of pantherine cats, combined with new studies, shows the occurrence of Puma pardoides (Owen, 1846) during this period and leads to a reconsideration of medium-sized felids evolutionary and biogeographical patterns. Panlhera pardus was present in Europe during the early Middle Pleistocene, replacing Puma pardoides. The taxonomic status of the feline from the Caune de l'Arago lower levels here discussed completes the fossil record of Pleistocene medium-sized felids. Its particular morphology reflects the intraspecific variability of P. pardus, and could be a representative of an ancestral form. Its chronological position (MIS 14) provides key material for a better definition of Pleistocene felids biochronological frame.

Moyano I.T.,Museo Arqueologico y Etnologico de Granada | Barsky D.,Rovira i Virgili University | Celiberti V.,Center Europeen Of Recherches Prehistoriques Of Tautavel | Gregoire S.,Center Europeen Of Recherches Prehistoriques Of Tautavel | And 3 more authors.
Quaternary International | Year: 2011

The Barranco León and Fuente Nueva 3 sites are located in the Guadix-Baza Basin in Orce (Andalusia, Spain) about 80 km from the Mediterranean Sea. The sites were accumulated in swampy areas near the paleo-lake Baza's eastern shoreline. There, hominins and hyenas competed for access to large herbivore carcasses abandoned by carnivores. The ages of the Barranco León and Fuente Nueva 3 sites have been evaluated from large and small mammal biochronology, magnetostratigraphy and also by ESR to around 1.4-1.2 Ma, respectively. Both sites have yielded fauna and lithic artefacts in situ. Systematic excavations at Barranco León and Fuente Nueva 3 have been underway since the 1990's and contribute to growing evidence of hominin presence in southern Europe well before 1 Ma.The two lithic assemblages show strong similarities. At both sites, the artefacts were knapped from tabular flint and limestone pebbles collected nearby. The assemblages are composed mainly of small, non modified flakes and angular fragments, as well as some cores. Larger limestone heavy duty tools and cores are also present. There are no standardized small or large tools. Stone knapping was carried out using hand held and bipolar-on-an-anvil reduction strategies in accordance with raw material constraints and probably also desired product morphology. The assemblages are characterized by widespread use of unidirectional knapping methods. Reduction strategies were progressively adapted as the cores evolved into different forms. The Barranco León and Fuente Nueva 3 stone tool assemblages express a variant of Oldowan or Mode 1 technology that may be considered to be more complex than that observed at some earlier African sites, mainly because of the systematic use of extended orthogonal knapping episodes producing multiplatform cores and the differential use of two types of raw materials for making small cutting tools and larger percussion instruments. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

This article presents new accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dates of cutmarked ungulate remains from one of the uppermost archaeological layers (f) at the Grotte de Saint-Marcel, Ardèche, France. This site is situated in a key location regarding population dispersal and potential interaction between Neanderthals and modern humans, as it lies at the crossroads of two main routes of passage. Attributing the upper sequence of this site to a precise chronological period within the Mousterian was difficult until now. Previous conventional 14C analyses done on bulk samples over twenty years ago were considered too young (23,000-30,000 BP). Our new AMS radiocarbon results give two statistically identical dates of 37,850±550 BP and 37,850±600 BP, thus confirming the Late Mousterian attribution of the upper levels of this site. A third date overlaps them at two standard deviations. These are among the very few chronometric dates available for the Mousterian (especially its late phases) in Mediterranean France. The Late Mousterian of this zone, a key region in recent debates about late Neanderthal behaviour, is discussed in light of these results. © 2010 Académie des sciences.

Garcia T.,French Natural History Museum | Feraud G.,University of Nice Sophia Antipolis | Falgueres C.,French Natural History Museum | de Lumley H.,Institute Of Paleontologie Humaine | And 2 more authors.
Quaternary Geochronology | Year: 2010

Several hominid remains have been discovered in the open-air site of Dmanisi (Georgia), the oldest prehistoric site in Eurasia. Two major arguments prove that this site is close in age to the Plio-Pleistocene boundary: a Villafranchian fauna and the morphological characteristics of hominid remains recently ascribed to Homo georgicus. Direct dating of the lower hominid-bearing level was carried out on volcanic glass and minerals using the 40Ar/39Ar method. The concordant results from two different sampled locations allow the determination of the age of the earliest human presence in Eurasia. This radioisotopic result strengthens the argument that the first dispersal of hominids outside Africa occurred at least 1.8Ma ago. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.

Puech P.-F.,Institute Of Paleontologie Humaine | Puech B.,Lille University of Science and Technology
AMHA - Acta Medico-Historica Adriatica | Year: 2012

This paper is an essay to connect with the Stone Age coastal hunters who sheltered 28,000 years ago in the caves of today's Italian Mediterranean Sea shore cliffs. We have focused on the archaeological Gravettian layer in the Cavillon cave from Grimaldi occupied by Cro-Magnons (informal name for Anatomically Modern Humans of the European Upper Paleolithic), which demonstrates the technical skills of the phase. Cro-Magnons, like Neanderthals, were seasonally nomadic; however, the diversity of the resources exploited within the territory along the Grimaldi sea coast suggests a longer-term site within which a complex symbolic culture developed.

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