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Rodriguez L.,University of Burgos | Rodriguez L.,National Research Center sobre la Evolucion Humana | Carretero J.M.,University of Burgos | Carretero J.M.,Complutense University of Madrid | And 15 more authors.
Journal of Human Evolution | Year: 2016

Complete radii in the fossil record preceding recent humans and Neandertals are very scarce. Here we introduce the radial remains recovered from the Sima de los Huesos (SH) site in the Sierra de Atapuerca between 1976 and 2011 and which have been dated in excess of 430 ky (thousands of years) ago. The sample comprises 89 specimens, 49 of which are attributed to adults representing a minimum of seven individuals. All elements are described anatomically and metrically, and compared with other fossil hominins and recent humans in order to examine the phylogenetic polarity of certain radial features. Radial remains from SH have some traits that differentiate them from those of recent humans and make them more similar to Neandertals, including strongly curved shafts, anteroposterior expanded radial heads and both absolutely and relatively long necks. In contrast, the SH sample differs from Neandertals in showing a high overall gracility as well as a high frequency (80%) of an anteriorly oriented radial tuberosity. Thus, like the cranial and dental remains from the SH site, characteristic Neandertal radial morphology is not present fully in the SH radii. We also analyzed the cross-sectional properties of the SH radial sample at two different levels: mid-shaft and at the midpoint of the neck length. When standardized by shaft length, no difference in the mid-shaft cross-sectional properties were found between the SH hominins, Neandertals and recent humans. Nevertheless, due to their long neck length, the SH hominins show a higher lever efficiency than either Neandertals or recent humans. Functionally, the SH radial morphology is consistent with more efficient pronation-supination and flexion-extension movements. The particular trait composition in the SH sample and Neandertals resembles more closely morphology evident in recent human males. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Karakostis F.A.,University of Tubingen | Lorenzo C.,Rovira i Virgili University | Lorenzo C.,Institute Of Paleoecologia Humana I Evolucio Social Iphes
American Journal of Physical Anthropology | Year: 2016

Objectives: This study aimed to put forth a new and precise methodology for calculating the 3D areas of hand entheses. Furthermore, it investigated some of the factors affecting hand entheses development through an assessment of their correlations and morphometric patterns. Materials and methods: Fifty individuals from late-medieval San Pablo were studied. The sample consisted of high-definition 3D models of 17 entheses from the first, second, and fifth hand rays. A new methodology was introduced for quantifying their areas. Precision was verified using intraobserved and interobserver tests. Both raw and relative entheseal size (ratio of entheseal size to total bone surface size) were calculated. Bivariate analyses assessed the effect of age-group on entheses as well as the correlations across entheses of muscles that act synergistically, bone length, and articular surface size. The morphometric patterns among hand entheses were explored using a multivariate analysis. Results: The methodology presented no significant error. Age-group variation does not seem to affect hand entheses. In relative size, only particular pairs presented significant association and the entheses involved were not correlated with bone length or articular surface size. The multivariate analysis demonstrated high sexual dimorphism in overall entheseal size as well as two morphometric trends among hand entheses. Discussion: The proposed methodology can set the basis for further morphological 3D analysis of entheses. If biomechanical stress affects hand entheses, its impact would possibly be greater on their relative size. The morphometric patterns among entheses seem to reflect the performance of prehensile grips. Am J Phys Anthropol 160:694–707, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Remolins G.,REGIRAROCS | Gibaja J.F.,Institucio Mila i Fontanals IMF CSIC | Alliese F.,Paris-Sorbonne University | Fontanals M.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | And 10 more authors.
Comptes Rendus - Palevol | Year: 2016

The excavations carried out from 1983 to 1985 on an Andorran hillside by the former Andorra National Artistic Heritage Archaeological Research Service revealed one of the most important Neolithic sites in the Pyrenees. Directed by Xavier Llovera and Pere Canturri, the excavations uncovered a settlement with two interesting features: 1) it was located in a high mountain area, and 2) the same place possessed numerous domestic and funerary structures. Both factors have made La Feixa del Moro a key site in the prehistory of both the Pyrenees and the western Mediterranean in general. Three decades later, a pluridisciplinary team has begun a careful review of the documentation, studied the human remains and artefacts in the graves, carried out several forms of biochemical analysis and obtained new radiocarbon determinations for the individuals exhumed in two of the three burials in stone boxes (or cists). The objective is a better understanding of the first farming communities that settled in the Pyrenees. © 2016. Source

Vaquero M.,Rovira i Virgili University | Vaquero M.,Institute Of Paleoecologia Humana I Evolucio Social Iphes | Allue E.,Rovira i Virgili University | Allue E.,Institute Of Paleoecologia Humana I Evolucio Social Iphes | And 5 more authors.
Quaternaire | Year: 2013

The correlation between environmental and cultural changes is one of the primary archeological and paleoanthropological research topics. Analysis of ice and marine cores has yielded a high-resolution record of millennial-scale changes during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene eras. However, cultural changes are documented in low-resolution continental deposits; thus, their correlation with the millennial-scale climatic sequence is often difficult. In this paper, we present a rare occurrence in which a thick archeological sequence is associated with a high-resolution environmental record. The Cinglera del Capellô is a tufa-draped cliff located in the northeastern Iberian Peninsula, 50 km west of Barcelona. This cliff harbors several rock-shelters with Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene deposits. Together, the deposits of four rock-shelters span from 7000 to 70,000 years ago and provide a highresolution record of the environmental and human dynamics during this timespan. This record allows the correlation of the cultural and environmental changes. The multiproxy approach to the Cinglera evidence indicates that the main cultural stages of the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene (Middle Paleolithic, Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic) are associated with significant changes in the environmental and depositional contexts. Source

Martin P.,Institute Of Paleoecologia Humana I Evolucio Social Iphes | Martin P.,Rovira i Virgili University | Saladie P.,Institute Of Paleoecologia Humana I Evolucio Social Iphes | Saladie P.,Rovira i Virgili University | And 3 more authors.
Quaternary International | Year: 2014

Carnivore consumption has been identified in the Holocene levels of El Mirador Cave (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain). Remains of domestic dogs, wild cats, badgers, and foxes, recovered from Neolithic to Bronze Age levels (sixth millennium to second millennium cal BC), present evidence of human consumption. This evidence includes cut marks, bone breakage, signs of culinary processing and human tooth marks. This is some of the oldest evidence documented either in the Iberian Peninsula or in Europe as a whole, and it is the first time that human tooth marks are used to confirm the human consumption of these carnivores.Dog consumption is sporadic but occurs repeatedly in time, whereas the consumption of small wild carnivores is more limited in time. These practices could be linked with the provision of extra food during periods of shortage and/or with meat of special consideration, especially dog meat. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA. Source

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