Brlek M.,Croatian Geological Survey |
Korbar T.,Croatian Geological Survey |
Kosir A.,Institute of Palaeontology ZRC SAZU |
Glumac B.,Smith College |
And 2 more authors.
Facies | Year: 2014
Substrate-controlled ichnofacies and biogenic calcretes represent key features for identification and interpretation of discontinuities in the carbonate rock record, which are of great significance for stratigraphic interpretations and correlations. Intraformational firmground and composite surfaces, as well as a regional Cretaceous to Paleogene (K-Pg) subaerial unconformity, developed in Upper Cretaceous to Paleogene intra-platform peritidal successions in central Dalmatia, Croatia (Adriatic-Dinaridic Carbonate Platform, ADCP), were analyzed for their trace fossil and subaerial exposure features. Thalassinoides (probably T. paradoxicus) box-work burrow systems of the substrate-controlled Glossifungites ichnofacies characterize the two documented firmgrounds and one composite (polygenic) surface. Rhizogenic laminar calcretes developed subsequently inside burrows of the composite surface through diagenetic overprint of marine sediment that passively infilled the burrows. While the formation of the two firmgrounds was probably caused by cessation of precipitation and/or deposition of calcium carbonate due to relative sea-level fall, the recorded trace fossils associated with the composite surface indicate that this surface developed through both submarine firmground and subaerial exposure stages probably caused by several episodes of regression and transgression, and exemplifies the general complexity of hiatal surfaces in shallow-marine carbonate successions. The regional K-Pg subaerial unconformity is characterized by biogenic (beta microfabric) calcretes with rhizoliths including Microcodium aggregates, root tubules, as well as alveolar-septal structures. Laminar calcretes and pisoids, together with in situ and resedimented speleothems, and bauxitic deposits, were also recorded. The unconformity developed due to formation of a forebulge in front of the approaching Dinaridic orogen. Ichnological and subaerial exposure features, together with stratigraphic implications derived from the analyzed discontinuities, serve as examples that can be applied to discontinuities present in carbonate successions elsewhere. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Huerta P.,University of Salamanca |
Rodriguez-Berriguete T.,Complutense University of Madrid |
Martin-Garcia R.,Complutense University of Madrid |
Martin-Perez A.,Institute of Palaeontology ZRC SAZU |
And 2 more authors.
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology | Year: 2015
Calcretes are widely described in non-marine settings with carbonates in their catchment, or vicinity areas, but in volcanic islands without carbonates in their substrate, calcretes are not very common. In Lanzarote and Fuerteventura Canary Islands, characterized by impressive volcanic landscapes, the sedimentary carbonate rocks are rare except for some recent marine and aeolian deposits. In these settings very well-developed calcretes cover large areas of the present landscape. The source of calcium required for the formation of these calcretes has not been discussed in much detail till now, although its role is critical to an understanding of the climatic conditions in which calcium was transported and fixed and of the calcrete formation processes. The petrological and geochemical studies (87Sr/86Sr ratios, δ13C, δ18O, major, trace and REE) carried out in this paper do confirm the important role of aeolian dust input in the formation of these calcretes. Canarian calcretes were mainly generated by pedogenic processes and are composed of various irregular carbonate lamina interbedded with fine clastic deposits. Our study indicates that these interbeddings were the result of several stages in which, during dry periods, aeolian dust deposition alternated with leaching and calcite precipitation during wetter periods when plants, insects and bacteria played an important role in carbonate precipitation. The δ18O (-2.70 to +2.22% VPDB) and δ13C (-8.21 to +0.24% VPDB) values indicate that calcretes were formed by pedogenic processes. Comparison of calculated δ18O values for the Canary calcretes with continental mid-latitude calcrete values reflects the more homogeneous temperature regimes of calcrete formation in island (oceanic) settings. Calcrete87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.706357 to 0.709208) show strong affinity with those obtained in aeolian carbonate dust and marine deposits, and are relatively different from those obtained in basalts. REE, major and trace element concentrations show that Ca-bearing minerals from volcanic host rock contributed little to calcrete formation and most of the calcium was supplied by aeolian deposits such as the aeolian dust coming from the Sahara and Sahel or sand dunes. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.