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Chimutengwende-Gordon M.,Institute of Orthopaedics and Musculoskeletal Science | Khan W.S.,University College London
Current Stem Cell Research and Therapy | Year: 2012

Tissue engineering of bone has the potential to overcome the limitations of using autologous, allogeneic or synthetic bone grafts to treat extensive bone defects. It involves culturing of osteogenic cells within appropriate scaffold materials under conditions that optimize bone development. Stem cells, progenitor cells, terminally differentiated cells or genetically modified cells may be used. Scaffold materials include polymers, ceramics or composites which are used to maintain the desirable characteristics of the individual materials. Preclinical and clinical studies on the use of growth factors such as bone morphogenetic proteins to increase bone formation have had promising results. This review discusses the approaches to and the challenges associated with producing tissue engineered bone. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.

Shalaby A.,University College London | Presneau N.,University College London | Ye H.,Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital | Halai D.,Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital | And 13 more authors.
Journal of Pathology | Year: 2011

Chordoma, the molecular hallmark of which is T (brachyury), is a rare malignant bone tumour with a high risk of local recurrence and a tumour from which metastatic disease is a common late event. Currently, there is no effective drug therapy for treating chordomas, although there is evidence that some patients respond to the empirical use of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antagonists. The aim of this study was to determine the role of EGFR in the pathogenesis of chordoma. Paraffin-embedded material from 173 chordomas from 160 patients [sacro-coccygeal (n = 94), skull-based (n = 50), and mobile spine (n = 16)] was analysed by immunohistochemistry and revealed total EGFR expression in 69% of cases analysed. Of 147 informative chordomas analysed by FISH, 38% revealed high-level EGFR polysomy, 4% high-level polysomy with focal amplification, 18% low-level polysomy, and 39% disomy. Phospho-receptor tyrosine kinase array membranes showed EGFR activation in the chordoma cell line U-CH1 and all of the three chordomas analysed. Direct sequencing of EGFR (exons 18-21), KRAS, NRAS, HRAS (exons 2, 3), and BRAF (exons 11, 15) using DNA from 62 chordomas failed to reveal mutations. PTEN expression was absent by immunohistochemistry in 19 of 147 (13%) analysed chordomas, only one of which revealed high-level polysomy of EGFR. The EGFR inhibitor tyrphostin (AG 1478) markedly inhibited proliferation of the chordoma cell line U-CH1 in vitro and diminished EGFR phosphorylation in a dose-dependant manner, a finding supported by inhibition of phosphorylated Erk1/2. p-Akt was suppressed to a much lesser degree in these experiments. There was no reduction of T as assessed by western blotting. These data implicate aberrant EGFR signalling in the pathogenesis of chordoma. This study provides a strategy for patient stratification for treatment with EGFR antagonists. Copyright © 2010 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Amary M.F.,Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital | Bacsi K.,Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital | Maggiani F.,Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital | Damato S.,Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital | And 14 more authors.
Journal of Pathology | Year: 2011

Somatic mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 occur in gliomas and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Since patients with multiple enchondromas have occasionally been reported to have these conditions, we hypothesized that the same mutations would occur in cartilaginous neoplasms. Approximately 1200 mesenchymal tumours, including 220 cartilaginous tumours, 222 osteosarcomas and another ∼750 bone and soft tissue tumours, were screened for IDH1 R132 mutations, using Sequenom® mass spectrometry. Cartilaginous tumours and chondroblastic osteosarcomas, wild-type for IDH1 R132, were analysed for IDH2 (R172, R140) mutations. Validation was performed by capillary sequencing and restriction enzyme digestion. Heterozygous somatic IDH1/IDH2 mutations, which result in the production of a potential oncometabolite, 2-hydroxyglutarate, were only detected in central and periosteal cartilaginous tumours, and were found in at least 56% of these, ∼40% of which were represented by R132C. IDH1 R132H mutations were confirmed by immunoreactivity for this mutant allele. The ratio of IDH1:IDH2 mutation was 10.6: 1. No IDH2 R140 mutations were detected. Mutations were detected in enchondromas through to conventional central and dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas, in patients with both solitary and multiple neoplasms. No germline mutations were detected. No mutations were detected in peripheral chondrosarcomas and osteochondromas. In conclusion, IDH1 and IDH2 mutations represent the first common genetic abnormalities to be identified in conventional central and periosteal cartilaginous tumours. As in gliomas and AML, the mutations appear to occur early in tumourigenesis. We speculate that a mosaic pattern of IDH-mutation-bearing cells explains the reports of diverse tumours (gliomas, AML, multiple cartilaginous neoplasms, haemangiomas) occurring in the same patient. Copyright © 2011 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Briggs T.W.R.,Institute of Orthopaedics and Musculoskeletal Science | Hanna S.A.,University of Western Ontario | Kayani B.,Institute of Orthopaedics and Musculoskeletal Science | Tai S.,East and North Hertfordshire NHS Trust | And 4 more authors.
Bone and Joint Journal | Year: 2015

The long term biological effects of wear products following total hip arthroplasty (THA) are unclear. However, the indications for THA are expanding, with increasingly younger patients undergoing the procedure. This prospective, randomised study compared two groups of patients undergoing THA after being randomised to receive one of two different bearing surfaces: metal-onpolyethylene (MoP) n = 22 and metal-on-metal (MoM) n = 23. We investigated the relationship between three variables: bearing surface (MoP vs MoM), whole blood levels of chromium (Cr) and cobalt (Co) and chromosomal aberrations in peripheral lymphocyte preoperatively and at one, two and five years post-surgery. Our results demonstrated significantly higher mean cobalt and chromium (Co and Cr) blood levels in the MoM group at all follow-up points following surgery (p < 0.01), but there were no significant differences in the chromosomal aberration indices between MoM and MoP at two or five years (two years: p = 0.56, p = 0.08, p = 0.91, p = 0.51 and five years: p = 0.086, p = 0.73, p = 0.06, p = 0.34) for translocations, breaks, loss and gain of chromosomes respectively. Regression analysis showed a strong linear relationship between Cr levels and the total chromosomal aberration indices in the MoM group (R2 = 0.90016), but this was not as strong for Co (R2 = 0.68991). In the MoP group, the analysis revealed a poor relationship between Cr levels and the total chromosomal aberration indices (R2 = 0.23908) but a slightly stronger relationship for Co (R2 = 0.64292). Across both groups, Spearman's correlation detected no overall association between Co and Cr levels and each of the studied chromosomal aberrations. There remains no clear indication which THA bearing couple is the most biocompatible, especially in young active patients. While THA continues to be very successful at alleviating pain and restoring function, the long-term biological implications of the procedure still require further scrutiny. © 2015 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

Jeyabalan J.,Royal Veterinary College | Viollet B.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Viollet B.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Viollet B.,University of Paris Descartes | And 8 more authors.
Osteoporosis International | Year: 2013

The present study shows no adverse effects of the anti-diabetic drug metformin on bone mass and fracture healing in rodents but demonstrates that metformin is not osteogenic in vivo, as previously proposed. Introduction: In view of the increased incidence of fractures in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), we investigated the effects of metformin, a widely used T2DM therapy, on bone mass and fracture healing in vivo using two different rodent models and modes of metformin administration. Methods: We first subjected 12-week-old female C57BL/6 mice to ovariectomy (OVX). Four weeks after OVX, mice received either saline or metformin administered by gavage (100 mg/kg/daily). After 4 weeks of treatment, bone micro-architecture and cellular activity were determined in tibia by micro-CT and bone histomorphometry. In another experiment, female Wistar rats aged 3 months were given only water or metformin for 8 weeks via the drinking water (2 mg/ml). After 4 weeks of treatment, a mid-diaphyseal osteotomy was performed in the left femur. Rats were sacrificed 4 weeks after osteotomy and bone architecture analysed by micro-CT in the right tibia while fracture healing and callus volume were determined in the left femur by X-ray analysis and micro-CT, respectively. Results: In both models, our results show no significant differences in cortical and trabecular bone architecture in metformin-treated rodents compared to saline. Metformin had no effect on bone resorption but reduced bone formation rate in trabecular bone. Mean X-ray scores assessed on control and metformin fractures showed no significant differences of healing between the groups. Fracture callus volume and mineral content after 4 weeks were similar in both groups. Conclusions: Our results indicate that metformin has no effect on bone mass in vivo or fracture healing in rodents. © 2013 The Author(s).

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