Institute of Orthopaedic Research and Biomechanics

Neu-Ulm, Germany

Institute of Orthopaedic Research and Biomechanics

Neu-Ulm, Germany
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Lips K.S.,Justus Liebig University | Yanko O.,Justus Liebig University | Kneffel M.,Justus Liebig University | Panzer I.,Justus Liebig University | And 15 more authors.
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders | Year: 2015

Background: Recently, analysis of bone from knockout mice identified muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtype M3 (mAChR M3) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit α2 as positive regulator of bone mass accrual whereas of male mice deficient for α7-nAChR (α7KO) did not reveal impact in regulation of bone remodeling. Since female sex hormones are involved in fair coordination of osteoblast bone formation and osteoclast bone degradation we assigned the current study to analyze bone strength, composition and microarchitecture of female α7KO compared to their corresponding wild-type mice (α7WT). Methods: Vertebrae and long bones of female 16-week-old α7KO (n = 10) and α7WT (n = 8) were extracted and analyzed by means of histological, radiological, biomechanical, cell- And molecular methods as well as time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results: Bone of female α7KO revealed a significant increase in bending stiffness (p < 0.05) and cortical thickness (p < 0.05) compared to α7WT, whereas gene expression of osteoclast marker cathepsin K was declined. ToF-SIMS analysis detected a decrease in trabecular calcium content and an increase in C4H6N+ (p < 0.05) and C4H8N+ (p < 0.001) collagen fragments whereas a loss of osteoid was found by means of TEM. Conclusions: Our results on female α7KO bone identified differences in bone strength and composition. In addition, we could demonstrate that α7-nAChRs are involved in regulation of bone remodelling. In contrast to mAChR M3 and nAChR subunit α2 the α7-nAChR favours reduction of bone strength thereby showing similar effects as α7β2-nAChR in male mice. nAChR are able to form heteropentameric receptors containing α- And β-subunits as well as the subunits α7 can be arranged as homopentameric cation channel. The different effects of homopentameric and heteropentameric α7-nAChR on bone need to be analysed in future studies as well as gender effects of cholinergic receptors on bone homeostasis. © 2015 Lips et al.


Dreischarf M.,Charité - Medical University of Berlin | Zander T.,Charité - Medical University of Berlin | Shirazi-Adl A.,Ecole Polytechnique de Montréal | Puttlitz C.M.,Colorado State University | And 13 more authors.
Journal of Biomechanics | Year: 2014

Finite element (FE) model studies have made important contributions to our understanding of functional biomechanics of the lumbar spine. However, if a model is used to answer clinical and biomechanical questions over a certain population, their inherently large inter-subject variability has to be considered. Current FE model studies, however, generally account only for a single distinct spinal geometry with one set of material properties. This raises questions concerning their predictive power, their range of results and on their agreement with in vitro and in vivo values.Eight well-established FE models of the lumbar spine (L1-5) of different research centers around the globe were subjected to pure and combined loading modes and compared to in vitro and in vivo measurements for intervertebral rotations, disc pressures and facet joint forces.Under pure moment loading, the predicted L1-5 rotations of almost all models fell within the reported in vitro ranges, and their median values differed on average by only 2° for flexion-extension, 1° for lateral bending and 5° for axial rotation. Predicted median facet joint forces and disc pressures were also in good agreement with published median in vitro values. However, the ranges of predictions were larger and exceeded those reported in vitro, especially for the facet joint forces. For all combined loading modes, except for flexion, predicted median segmental intervertebral rotations and disc pressures were in good agreement with measured in vivo values.In light of high inter-subject variability, the generalization of results of a single model to a population remains a concern. This study demonstrated that the pooled median of individual model results, similar to a probabilistic approach, can be used as an improved predictive tool in order to estimate the response of the lumbar spine. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Colorado State University, Ecole Polytechnique de Montréal, Charité - Medical University of Berlin, University of Toledo and 4 more.
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Journal of biomechanics | Year: 2014

Finite element (FE) model studies have made important contributions to our understanding of functional biomechanics of the lumbar spine. However, if a model is used to answer clinical and biomechanical questions over a certain population, their inherently large inter-subject variability has to be considered. Current FE model studies, however, generally account only for a single distinct spinal geometry with one set of material properties. This raises questions concerning their predictive power, their range of results and on their agreement with in vitro and in vivo values. Eight well-established FE models of the lumbar spine (L1-5) of different research centers around the globe were subjected to pure and combined loading modes and compared to in vitro and in vivo measurements for intervertebral rotations, disc pressures and facet joint forces. Under pure moment loading, the predicted L1-5 rotations of almost all models fell within the reported in vitro ranges, and their median values differed on average by only 2 for flexion-extension, 1 for lateral bending and 5 for axial rotation. Predicted median facet joint forces and disc pressures were also in good agreement with published median in vitro values. However, the ranges of predictions were larger and exceeded those reported in vitro, especially for the facet joint forces. For all combined loading modes, except for flexion, predicted median segmental intervertebral rotations and disc pressures were in good agreement with measured in vivo values. In light of high inter-subject variability, the generalization of results of a single model to a population remains a concern. This study demonstrated that the pooled median of individual model results, similar to a probabilistic approach, can be used as an improved predictive tool in order to estimate the response of the lumbar spine.


Galbusera F.,Institute of Orthopaedic Research and Biomechanics | Galbusera F.,IRCCS Instituto Ortopedico Galeazzi | Wilke H.-J.,Institute of Orthopaedic Research and Biomechanics | Brayda-Bruno M.,IRCCS Instituto Ortopedico Galeazzi | And 2 more authors.
Clinical Biomechanics | Year: 2013

Background: Pathological deformities involving the sagittal alignment of the spine may lead to loss of spine stability and imbalance. The effect of different patterns of sagittal balance on the loads acting in the spine was only marginally investigated, although it would be of critical importance in the clinical management of spinal disorders. Methods: Optimization-based finite element models of the human spine in the standing position able to predict the loads acting in the lumbar spine and the activation of the spinal muscles were developed and used to explore a wide range of sagittal balance conditions, covering both inter-subject variability and pathological imbalance. 1000 two-dimensional randomized spine models with simplified geometry were generated by varying anatomical parameters such as lumbar lordosis, sacral slope, and C7 plumb line. Muscular loads were calculated by means of an optimization procedure aimed to minimize total muscular stress. Findings: The simulation of a physiological spine in the standing position predicted average disk stresses ranging from 0.38 to 0.5 MPa, in good agreement with in vivo measurements. The C7 plumb line and the parameters describing the lumbar spine were found to be the strongest determinants of the lumbar loads and muscle activity. Marginal relevance was found concerning the thoracic and cervical parameters. Interpretation: The present modeling approach was found to be able to capture correlations between sagittal parameters and the loads acting in the lumbar spine. The method represents a good platform for future improvements aimed at patient-specific modeling to support pre-operative surgical planning. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Steinbach A.,Universitatstrasse 1 | Tautzenberger A.,Institute of Orthopaedic Research and Biomechanics | Schaller A.,Universitatstrasse 1 | Kalytta-Mewes A.,Universitatstrasse 1 | And 3 more authors.
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces | Year: 2012

Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited polymers (plasma polymers) are promising candidates for biomaterials applications. In the present study, plasma deposition as a fast and easily scalable method was adapted to deposit coatings from n-heptane and methyl methacrylate monomers onto glass substrates. Linear patterns with line and groove widths between 1.25 and 160 μm were introduced by degrative UV-lithography for cell alignment. Differential interference contrast optical microscopy, profilometry and atomic force microscopy revealed that the patterned surfaces had a smooth, homogeneous appearance and a pattern height of 8 and 45 nm for plasma deposited n-heptane and methyl methacrylate, respectively. UV-lithography increased the oxygen content on the surface drastically as shown by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. After immersion in simulated body fluid for 21 days, the pattern was still intact, and the ester groups were also maintained for the most part as shown by infrared spectroscopy. To test the coatings' potential applicability for biomaterial surfaces in a preliminary experiment, we cultured murine preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells on these coatings. Light and electron microscopically, a normal spindle-shaped and aligned cell morphology was observed. At the mRNA level, cells showed no signs of diminished proliferation or elevated expression of apoptosis markers. In conclusion, plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited polymers can be patterned with a fast and feasible method and might be suitable materials to guide cell alignment. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Muller A.,University of Stuttgart | Muller A.,Institute of Textile Chemistry and Chemical Fibres | Schleid T.,University of Stuttgart | Doser M.,Institute of Textile Technology and Process Engineering | And 6 more authors.
Journal of the European Ceramic Society | Year: 2014

Polycrystalline calcium phosphate ((Cl/OH)Ap=Ca5(PO4)3(OH/Cl); TCP=Ca3(PO4)2) fibres were prepared from aqueous solutions of calcium chloride and phosphoric acid using poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) as spinning aid. Generation of nonwoven materials was accomplished via rotary jet spinning. Polycrystalline (Cl/OH)Ap fibres 10-25μm in diameter were obtained with 37% ceramic yield by pyrolysis of the green fibres followed by sintering at 1150°C in air. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis provided evidence for apatite formation starting at 650°C while (Cl/OH)Ap ceramic fibres were obtained at 1100°C via transformation through intermediate dicalcium dichloride hydrogen phosphate (Ca2Cl2(HPO4)) and calcium pyrophosphate (Ca2P2O7) phases. A glass-forming Al-based additive was applied to enhance the mechanical properties of the Cl/OH)Ap ceramic fibres and indeed resulted in the formation of (Cl/OH)Ap/Al2O3 fibres with improved mechanical stability. Finally, TCP, (Cl/OH)Ap and (Cl/OH)Ap/Al2O3 fibres were subjected to seeding with mesenchymal stem cells. Negligible cytotoxicity is observed. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

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