Institute of Organic Agriculture

Vienna, Austria

Institute of Organic Agriculture

Vienna, Austria
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Brahim S.,Institute of Organic Agriculture | Niess A.,Institute of Organic Agriculture | Pflipsen M.,Institute of Organic Agriculture | Neuhoff D.,Institute of Organic Agriculture | Scherer H.,University of Bonn
Plant, Soil and Environment | Year: 2017

Greenhouse pot experiments were carried out in 2013 and 2014 at the University of Bonn, Germany, to study the effect of combined fertilization of rock phosphate (RP) with elemental sulphur (ES) on growth, grain yield and nutrient uptake of soybean. Treatments included RP, ES, combined application (RPES), triple superphosphate (SP), magnesium sulphate (MgS), SP and magnesium sulphate (SPMgS) and an unfertilized control. Combined fertilization (RPES) resulted in a significant increase of soil-plant analysis development (SPAD) values, grain yield, yield components and nitrogen and in part phosphorus uptake of the shoot. Single application of RP or ES only tended to affect crop growth and nutrient uptake. Application of MgS and/or SP significantly increased grain yield in both years suggesting an effect of sulphate. © 2017, Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences. All rights reserved.

Wahlhutter S.,Institute of Organic Agriculture | Vogl C.R.,Institute of Organic Agriculture | Eberhart H.,Institute of European Ethnology and Cultural Anthropology
Geoderma | Year: 2016

Studies of farming symbols in modern agriculture indicate that soils and agricultural land are important factors when it comes to the construction of farmers' identities. This article uses Bourdieu's framework of habitus along with his theory of capital to discuss the importance of soils in this construction process of farmers' identities. A range of methods was used in this study involving qualitative and quantitative interviews with 124 farmers in the Austrian province of Burgenland. In the Burgenland, soil and landscapes are loaded with meaning and therefore never neutral: always implying a wide range of moral concepts of what is "good" or "bad" in the context of soil and land. Farmers "read" soils and related management practices as indication of farming skills and the farmers' interpretation always depends on farmers' aesthetic perception of the world and thus on the farmers' habitus and cultural capital. Farmers distinguish themselves from other farmers, groups or areas of work relating to soil quality aspects or soil management strategies of others. This reciprocal construction of boundaries locates the standing of individual farmers within a community. The importance of the relation between farmers and their soils for the construction of farming identity is especially important for organic farmers. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Athmann M.,Institute of Organic Agriculture | Kautz T.,Institute of Organic Agriculture | Pude R.,Research Center Campus Klein Altendorf | Kopke U.,Institute of Organic Agriculture
Plant and Soil | Year: 2013

Background and aims: The significance of biopores for nutrient acquisition from the subsoil depends on root-soil contact, which in turn is influenced by root architecture. The aim of this study was to detect differences regarding the architecture and root-soil contact of homorhizous barley roots (Hordeum vulgare L.) and allorhizous oilseed rape roots (Brassica napus L.) growing in biopores. Methods: In situ endoscopy was used as a technique that allows non-destructive display of pore wall characteristics and root morphology inside large biopores under field conditions. Results: For both crops, about 85 % of all roots did establish contact to the pore wall. However, according to their different root architecture, the two crops varied in their strategy of resource acquisition: While barley was characterized by thin vertical or ingrowing roots, most of them in direct contact to the pore wall, oilseed rape established contact to the pore wall predominantly via lateral roots. Conclusions: Root morphological and pore wall assessment with in situ endoscopy in combination with detailed studies of soil biochemical and soil physical parameters of the pore wall is considered an essential prerequisite for more precise future modelling of nutrient acquisition and uptake. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Kautz T.,Institute of Organic Agriculture | Perkons U.,Institute of Organic Agriculture | Athmann M.,Institute of Organic Agriculture | Pude R.,University of Bonn | Kopke U.,Institute of Organic Agriculture
Biology and Fertility of Soils | Year: 2013

Using the profile wall method, we determined the root-length density (RLD) of barley roots growing in large-sized biopores (diameter >2 mm) and in the bulk soil of a Haplic Luvisol down to 200 cm of soil depth. The maximum bulk density in the soil profile (1.52 g cm-3) was recorded in the Bt horizon (41-115 cm of soil depth). The proportion of RLD in biopores over the total RLD increased with increasing soil depth down to the 45-75 or 75-105 cm of soil layer but then decreased again in deeper soil. In contrast to earlier investigations, the maximum percentage of RLD in biopores recorded in this study was only 25 %. Root sampling from individually dissected biopores confirmed that roots did not predominantly grow in biopores. Results suggest that roots can use biopores as preferred pathways for growth through rather compact soil layers, whereas they can possibly leave the biopore and re-enter the bulk soil in deeper, less compact layers. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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