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Fan W.,Institute of Organ Transplantation | Wei H.,Institute of Infectious Disease | Song S.,Institute of Infectious Disease
Virus Genes | Year: 2011

Hepatitis B virus (HBV), a major causative agent of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), encodes an oncogenic X protein (HBx) that transcriptionally activates multiple viral and cellular promoters. The present study aimed to identify the specific gene mutation related to the clinical outcome of HCC. Seventy-two HBV-infected patients (38 with chronic HBV infection and 34 with HCC) with well-characterized clinical profiles were enrolled. The HBx region was amplified from patient serum samples and analyzed by sequencing. Genotypes were determined using the National Center for Biotechnology Information genotype tool. All isolates were genotype B or C. Enhancer II nucleotide substitutions in the HCC group were significantly different from those in the chronic hepatitis B (CHB) group (Ρ < 0.05). HCC patients with genotype C had a higher risk of harboring the 1762/1764 double mutation than those with genotype B. The incidence of the 1762/1764 double mutation was higher in the high viral load group (>10 6 copies/ml) than in the low viral load group (≥10 6 copies/ml) (P = 0.03). The 1762/1764 double mutations may be related to the genotype and viral load. We found significantly more direct repeat sequence 1 (DR1) nucleotide substitutions in the HCC group (32.4%, 11/34) than in the CHB group (10.5%, 4/38) (Ρ < 0.05). Patients with higher viral load and genotype C had a higher incidence of 1762/1764 double mutations, which may not be related with development of HCC. Enhancer II and DR1 may play an important role in HCC development via nucleotide substitution. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Xu L.,Center for Renal Transplantation | Han S.,Institute of Organ Transplantation | Liu Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Wang H.,Shandong University | And 4 more authors.
Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics | Year: 2011

The aim of this study was to explore the timing, conditions, and complications of post-operative conception and pregnancy among female renal transplant recipients in China. A cohort of 25 female renal transplant recipients who subsequently had successful pregnancies was randomly selected from eight organ transplantation centers in China. In this cohort, there were 38 post-transplant conceptions and 25 live births. The effects of conception and pregnancy on renal function as well as any effects of transplantation on delivery, prematurity, and maternal and infant health were investigated. Out of 38 conceptions after transplantation, seven ended in spontaneous abortion, six in artificial abortion, and 25 in single births, seven of which were premature (28%). The growth and development of all of the infants were normal. All the 25 received artificial (formula) feeding. Six patients had to return to hemodialysis therapy at 1-41 months after conception due to reduced function of the transplanted kidney. It appears best for female renal transplant recipients to wait at least for 2 years post-transplant before pregnancy. We found no significant effect on fetal growth and development. The incidence of premature births among female renal transplant recipients was high which might have an effect on transplant renal function and maternal health. Breast feeding is not considered suitable for these patients and was therefore not studied. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Jun L.,Union Hospital | Kailun Z.,Union Hospital | Aini X.,Union Hospital | Lei X.,Union Hospital | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation | Year: 2010

Background: Inhibition of chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5), a chemokine receptor expressed on activated T cells, is efficacious in modulating inflammation and immunity as well as in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. This study examined the effect and mechanism of CCR5 blockade in combination with cyclosporine in prolonging cardiac allograft survival in mice. Methods: Hearts from BALB/c mice were transplanted into C57BL/10 recipients. They were administrated with anti-CCR5 antibody (Ab) or control Ab and cyclosporine or phosphate-buffered (PBS) saline, respectively. To investigate the role of regulatory cells, naïve mice (secondary recipients) underwent adoptive transfer of splenocytes from anti-CCR5 Ab plus cyclosporine-treated recipients and cardiac allograft transplantation. Results: Compared with recipients treated with control Ab plus PBS, allografts treated with anti-CCR5 Ab and cyclosporine showed significantly prolonged survival (p < 0.001), markedly decreased CD4+ and CD8+ T cells (p < 0.005), and increased frequency of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory cells (23.98% ± 1.55% vs 6.30% ± 0.57%, p < 0.005). Adoptive transfer of CD4+CD25+ splenocytes from anti-CCR5 Ab plus cyclosporine-treated recipients induced significantly prolonged survival in secondary recipients (p < 0.01 vs adoptive transfer from naïve mice and recipients depleted of CD25+ cells). Conclusions: CCR5 blockade combined with cyclosporine is effective in protecting the cardiac allograft in a robust murine model. This effect is partly mediated by regulatory cell recruitment and control of effector cell infiltration. © 2010 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation.


Xu L.,Kidney Transplant Center | Yang Y.,Wenzhou Medical College | Shi J.G.,Kidney Transplant Center | Wang H.,Shandong University | And 5 more authors.
European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care | Year: 2011

Objectives To investigate the occurrence of unwanted pregnancies among renal transplant recipients and to identify major contributing factors. Methods A total of 647 women of childbearing age who had received a renal transplant at one of the five participating hospitals in China were enrolled in the study and administered a questionnaire that collected information on their reproductive health, pregnancies, and awareness and use of contraceptive methods. Results Of the 647 eligible patients, 98 (15%) reported 133 unwanted pregnancies post-transplantation. In this group (n = 98), despite an awareness of the available contraceptive measures, 56% had not applied any method of contraception, while 20% had relied on the rhythm method, and in only 12% of the cases male condoms had been used. The most common reason for not using contraception was a failure to realise that their reproductive function had been restored to normal soon after transplantation (19%). Conclusion In female renal transplant recipients, unprotected sex combined with incorrect judgment about their own reproductive potential post-transplantation were the major causes of unwanted pregnancies. The latter could be avoided through counselling about the risk pregnancy entails and the implementation of appropriate contraceptive measures. © 2011 The European Society of Contraception and Reproductive Health.


Hueper K.,Hannover Medical School | Rong S.,Hannover Medical School | Rong S.,Zunyi Medical College | Gutberlet M.,Hannover Medical School | And 8 more authors.
Investigative Radiology | Year: 2013

Introduction: Renal ischemia reperfusion injury leads to acute kidney injury (AKI) and is associated with tissue edema, inflammatory cell infiltration, and subsequent development of interstitial renal fibrosis and tubular atrophy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the value of the functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, T2 mapping, and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in characterizing acute and chronic pathology after unilateral AKI in mice. Materials and Methods: Moderate or severe AKIs were induced in C57Bl/6 mice through transient unilateral clamping of the renal pedicle for 35 minutes (moderate AKI) or 45 minutes (severe AKI), respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 10 animals with moderate AKI and 7 animals with severe AKI before surgery and at 5 time points thereafter (days 1, 7, 14, 21, 28) using a 7-T magnet. Fat-saturated T2-weighted images, multiecho turbo spin echo, and diffusion-weighed sequences (7 b values) were acquired in matching coronal planes. Parameter maps of T2 relaxation time and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were calculated, and mean values were determined for the renal cortex, the outer medulla, and the inner medulla. Inflammatory cell infiltration with monocytes/macrophages (F4/80), T-lymphocytes (CD4, CD8), and dendritic cells (CD11c) as well as the degree of interstitial fibrosis 4 weeks after AKI were determined through renal histology and immunohistochemistry. Statistical analysis comprised unpaired t tests for group comparisons and correlation analysis between MRI parameters and kidney volume loss. Results: Increase of T2 relaxation time, indicating tissue edema, was most pronounced in the outer medulla and reached maximum values at d7 after AKI. At this time point, T2 values in the outer medulla were significantly increased to 53.8 ± 2.5 milliseconds after the severe AKI and to 46.3 ± 2.3 milliseconds after the moderate AKI when compared with the respective contralateral normal kidneys (40.9 ± 0.9 and 36.4 ± 1.2 milliseconds, respectively; P < 0.01). The T2 values reached baseline by d28. Medullary ADC was significantly reduced at all time points after AKI; restriction of diffusion was significantly more pronounced after the severe AKI than after the moderate AKI at d14 and d28. Changes of renal T2 and ADC values were associated with the severity of AKI as well as the degree of inflammatory cell infiltration and interstitial renal fibrosis 4 weeks after AKI. Furthermore, relative changes of both MRI parameters significantly correlated with kidney volume loss 4 weeks after AKI. Discussion: Measuring T2 and ADC values through MRI is a noninvasive way to determine the presence and severity of acute and chronic renal changes after AKI in mice. Thus, the method should prove useful in animal and human clinical studies. Copyright © 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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