Institute of Oncology and Radiobiology

Havana, Cuba

Institute of Oncology and Radiobiology

Havana, Cuba
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Toporcov T.N.,University of Sao Paulo | Znaor A.,Croatian National Cancer Registry | Zhang Z.-F.,University of California at Los Angeles | Yu G.-P.,Peking University | And 60 more authors.
International Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2015

Background: Increasing incidence of head and neck cancer (HNC) in young adults has been reported. We aimed to compare the role of major risk factors and family history of cancer in HNC in young adults and older patients. Methods: We pooled data from 25 case-control studies and conducted separate analyses for adults 45 years old ('young adults', 2010 cases and 4042 controls) and >45 years old ('older adults', 17 700 cases and 22 704 controls). Using logistic regression with studies treated as random effects, we estimated adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: The young group of cases had a higher proportion of oral tongue cancer (16.0% in women; 11.0% in men) and unspecified oral cavity/oropharynx cancer (16.2%; 11.1%) and a lower proportion of larynx cancer (12.1%; 16.6%) than older adult cases. The proportions of never smokers or never drinkers among female cases were higher than among male cases in both age groups. Positive associations with HNC and duration or pack-years of smoking and drinking were similar across age groups. However, the attributable fractions (AFs) for smoking and drinking were lower in young when compared with older adults (AFs for smoking in young women, older women, young men and older men, respectively, = 19.9% (95% CI=9.8%, 27.9%), 48.9% (46.6%, 50.8%), 46.2% (38.5%, 52.5%), 64.3% (62.2%, 66.4%); AFs for drinking=5.3% (11.2%, 18.0%), 20.0% (14.5%, 25.0%), 21.5% (5.0%, 34.9%) and 50.4% (46.1%, 54.3%). A family history of early-onset cancer was associated with HNC risk in the young [OR=2.27 (95% CI=1.26, 4.10)], but not in the older adults [OR=1.10 (0.91, 1.31)]. The attributable fraction for family history of early-onset cancer was 23.2% (8.60% to 31.4%) in young compared with 2.20% (2.41%, 5.80%) in older adults. Conclusions: Differences in HNC aetiology according to age group may exist. The lower AF of cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking in young adults may be due to the reduced length of exposure due to the lower age. Other characteristics, such as those that are inherited, may play a more important role in HNC in young adults compared with older adults.

Chen D.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | McKay J.D.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | Clifford G.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | Gaborieau V.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | And 24 more authors.
Human Molecular Genetics | Year: 2011

High-risk α mucosal types of human papillomavirus (HPV) cause anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers,whereas b cutaneous HPV types (e.g. HPV8) have been implicated in non-melanoma skin cancer. Although antibodies against the capsid protein L1 of HPV are considered asmarkers of cumulative exposure, not all infected persons seroconvert. To identify common genetic variants that influence HPV seroconversion,we performed a two-stage genome-wide association study. Genome-wide genotyping of 316 015 single nucleotide polymorphisms was carried out using the Illumina HumanHap300 BeadChip in 4811 subjects froma central European case-control study of lung, head and neck and kidney cancer that had serology data available on 13 HPV types. Only one association met genome-wide significance criteria, namely that between HPV8 seropositivity and rs9357152 [odds ratio (OR) = 1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.24-1.50 for theminor allele G; P = 1.2 × 10 -10], a common genetic variant (minor allele frequency = 0.33) located within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II region at 6p21.32. This association was subsequently replicated in an independent set of 2344 subjects from a Latin American case-control study of head and neck cancer (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.18-1.56, P = 2.2 × 10 -5), yielding P = 1.3 × 10 -14 in the combined analysis (P-heterogeneity 5 0.87). No heterogeneity was noted by cancer status(controls/lung cancer cases/head and neck cancer cases/kidney cancer cases). This study provides a proof of principle that genetic variation plays a role in antibody reactivity to HPV infection. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

Szymanska K.,International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC | Hung R.J.,International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC | Hung R.J.,Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute | Wunsch-Filho V.,University of Sao Paulo | And 11 more authors.
Cancer Causes and Control | Year: 2011

Background: Cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT; including oral cavity, pharynx, larynx and oesophagus) have high incidence rates all over the world, and they are especially frequent in some parts of Latin America. However, the data on the role of the major risk factors in these areas are still limited. Methods: We have evaluated the role of alcohol and tobacco consumption, based on 2,252 upper aerodigestive squamous-cell carcinoma cases and 1,707 controls from seven centres in Brazil, Argentina, and Cuba. Results: We show that alcohol drinkers have a risk of UADT cancers that is up to five times higher than that of never-drinkers. A very strong effect of aperitifs and spirits as compared to other alcohol types was observed, with the ORs reaching 12.76 (CI 5.37-30.32) for oesophagus. Tobacco smokers were up to six times more likely to develop aerodigestive cancers than never-smokers, with the ORs reaching 11.14 (7.72-16.08) among current smokers for hypopharynx and larynx cancer. There was a trend for a decrease in risk after quitting alcohol drinking or tobacco smoking for all sites. The interactive effect of alcohol and tobacco was more than multiplicative. In this study, 65% of all UADT cases were attributable to a combined effect of alcohol and tobacco use. Conclusions: In this largest study on UADT cancer in Latin America, we have shown for the first time that a prevailing majority of UADT cancer cases is due to a combined effect of alcohol and tobacco use and could be prevented by quitting the use of either of these two agents. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Marks M.A.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Chaturvedi A.K.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Kelsey K.,Brown University | Straif K.,International Agency of Research on Cancer | And 27 more authors.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention | Year: 2014

Background: The incidence of oropharyngeal and oral tongue cancers has increased over the last 20 years which parallels increased use of marijuana among individuals born after 1950. Methods: A pooled analysis was conducted comprising individual-level data from nine case-control studies from the United States and Latin America in the INHANCE consortium. Self-reported information on marijuana smoking, demographic, and behavioral factors was obtained from 1,921 oropharyngeal cases, 356 oral tongue cases, and 7,639 controls. Results: Compared with never marijuana smokers, ever marijuana smokers had an elevated risk of oropharyngeal [adjusted OR (aOR), 1.24; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06-1.47] and a reduced risk of oral tongue cancer (aOR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.29, 0.75). The risk of oropharyngeal cancer remained elevated among never tobacco and alcohol users. The risk of oral tongue cancer was reduced among never users of tobacco and alcohol. Sensitivity analysis adjusting for potential confounding by HPV exposure attenuated the association of marijuana use with oropharyngeal cancer (aOR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.71-1.25), but had no effect on the oral tongue cancer association. Conclusions: These results suggest that the association of marijuana use with head and neck carcinoma may differ by tumor site. Impact: The associations of marijuana use with oropharyngeal and oral tongue cancer are consistent with both possible pro- and anticarcinogenic effects of cannabinoids. Additional work is needed to rule out various sources of bias, including residual confounding by HPV infection and misclassification of marijuana exposure. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 23(1); 160-71. © 2013 AACR.

Wyss A.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Hashibe M.,University of Utah | Chuang S.-C.,National Health Research Institute | Lee Y.-C.A.,University of Utah | And 45 more authors.
American Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2013

Cigar and pipe smoking are considered risk factors for head and neck cancers, but the magnitude of effect estimates for these products has been imprecisely estimated. By using pooled data from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) Consortium (comprising 13,935 cases and 18,691 controls in 19 studies from 1981 to 2007), we applied hierarchical logistic regression to more precisely estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for cigarette, cigar, and pipe smoking separately, compared with reference groups of those who had never smoked each single product. Odds ratios for cigar and pipe smoking were stratified by ever cigarette smoking. We also considered effect estimates of smoking a single product exclusively versus never having smoked any product (reference group). Among never cigarette smokers, the odds ratio for ever cigar smoking was 2.54 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.93, 3.34), and the odds ratio for ever pipe smoking was 2.08 (95% CI: 1.55, 2.81). These odds ratios increased with increasing frequency and duration of smoking (Ptrend ≤ 0.0001). Odds ratios for cigar and pipe smoking were not elevated among ever cigarette smokers. Head and neck cancer risk was elevated for those who reported exclusive cigar smoking (odds ratio = 3.49, 95% CI: 2.58, 4.73) or exclusive pipe smoking (odds ratio = 3.71, 95% CI: 2.59, 5.33). These results suggest that cigar and pipe smoking are independently associated with increased risk of head and neck cancers. © 2013 © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved.

PubMed | University of Newcastle, Regional Authority of Public Health, Brown University, New York University and 42 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of epidemiology | Year: 2016

Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for head and neck cancer (HNC). To our knowledge, low cigarette smoking (<10 cigarettes per day) has not been extensively investigated in fine categories or among never alcohol drinkers.We conducted a pooled analysis of individual participant data from 23 independent case-control studies including 19660 HNC cases and 25566 controls. After exclusion of subjects using other tobacco products including cigars, pipes, snuffed or chewed tobacco and straw cigarettes (tobacco product used in Brazil), as well as subjects smoking more than 10 cigarettes per day, 4093 HNC cases and 13416 controls were included in the analysis. The lifetime average frequency of cigarette consumption was categorized as follows: never cigarette users, >0-3, >3-5, >5-10 cigarettes per day.Smoking >0-3 cigarettes per day was associated with a 50% increased risk of HNC in the study population [odds ratio (OR)=1.52, 95% confidence interval (CI): (1.21, 1.90). Smoking >3-5 cigarettes per day was associated in each subgroup from OR=2.01 (95% CI: 1.22, 3.31) among never alcohol drinkers to OR=2.74 (95% CI: 2.01, 3.74) among women and in each cancer site, particularly laryngeal cancer (OR=3.48, 95% CI: 2.40, 5.05). However, the observed increased risk of HNC for low smoking frequency was not found among smokers with smoking duration shorter than 20 years.Our results suggest a public health message that low frequency of cigarette consumption contributes to the development of HNC. However, smoking duration seems to play at least an equal or a stronger role in the development of HNC.

PubMed | Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Idibell Lhospitalet Of Llobregat, International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC, Cancer Institute WIA and 30 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

Genetic variants located within the 12p13.33/RAD52 locus have been associated with lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC). Here, within 5,947 UADT cancers and 7,789 controls from 9 different studies, we found rs10849605, a common intronic variant in RAD52, to be also associated with upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) squamous cell carcinoma cases (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04-1.15, p = 6x10(-4)). We additionally identified rs10849605 as a RAD52 cis-eQTL inUADT(p = 1x10(-3)) and LUSC (p = 9x10(-4)) tumours, with the UADT/LUSC risk allele correlated with increased RAD52 expression levels. The 12p13.33 locus, encompassing rs10849605/RAD52, was identified as a significant somatic focal copy number amplification in UADT(n = 374, q-value = 0.075) and LUSC (n = 464, q-value = 0.007) tumors and correlated with higher RAD52 tumor expression levels (p = 6x10(-48) and p = 3x10(-29) in UADT and LUSC, respectively). In combination, these results implicate increased RAD52 expression in both genetic susceptibility and tumorigenesis of UADT and LUSC tumors.

PubMed | National Institute of Endocrinology, Institute of Oncology and Radiobiology, International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC, MINES ParisTech and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: BMC genetics | Year: 2015

The incidence of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) in Cuba is low and the contribution of host genetic factors to DTC in this population has not been investigated so far. Our goal was to assess the role of known risk polymorphisms in DTC cases living in Havana. We genotyped five polymorphisms located at the DTC susceptibility loci on chromosome 14q13.3 near NK2 homeobox 1 (NKX2-1), on chromosome 9q22.33 near Forkhead factor E1 (FOXE1) and within the DNA repair gene Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) in 203 cases and 212 age- and sex- matched controls. Potential interactions between these polymorphisms and other DTC risk factors such as body surface area, body mass index, size, ethnicity, and, for women, the parity were also examined.Significant association with DTC risk was found for rs944289 near NKX2-1 (OR per A allele = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2-2.1), and three polymorphisms near or within FOXE1, namely rs965513 (OR per A allele = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2-2.3), rs1867277 in the promoter region of the gene (OR per A allele = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1-1.9) and the poly-alanine tract expansion polymorphism rs71369530 (OR per Long Allele = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.3-2.5), only the 2 latter remaining significant when correcting for multiple tests. Overall, no association between DTC and the coding SNP D1853N (rs1801516) in ATM (OR per A Allele = 1.1, 95% CI: 0.7-1.7) was seen. Nevertheless women who had 2 or more pregnancies had a 3.5-fold increase in risk of DTC if they carried the A allele (OR 3.5, 95% CI: 3.2-9.8) as compared to 0.8 (OR 0.8, 95% CI: 0.4-1.6) in those who had fewer than 2.We confirmed in the Cuban population the role of the loci previously associated with DTC susceptibility in European and Japanese populations through genome-wide association studies. Our results on ATM and the number of pregnancies raise interesting questions on the mechanisms by which oestrogens, or other hormones, alter the DNA damage response and DNA repair through the regulation of key effector proteins such as ATM. Due to the small size of our study and to multiple tests, all these results warrant further investigation.

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