Institute of Olive Tree

Irákleion, Greece

Institute of Olive Tree

Irákleion, Greece

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Markakis E.A.,Institute of Olive Tree | Koubouris G.C.,Institute of Olive Tree | Sergentani C.K.,Institute of Olive Tree | Ligoxigakis E.K.,Laboratory of Plant Pathology
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2017

In the present study, four Greek (Agiorgitiko, Asyrtiko, Roditis and Xinomavro) and one international (Soultanina) grapevine cultivars (Vitis vinifera L.) were screened for their resistance to Phaeomoniella chlamydospora. Artificial inoculation was carried out by drilling a hole into the trunk and injecting a concentrated conidial suspension into the vessels. Disease reactions were evaluated in an 87-day assessment period, on the basis of external symptoms (disease incidence, disease severity and mortality) and by calculating the relative areas under disease progress curves (relative AUDPC). The extension of vascular browning as well as the isolation ratio along the inoculated vine trunks were also taken into account as additional parameters for evaluating resistance. The results indicated that the resistance of grapevine cultivars to P. chlamydospora varied significantly. ‘Agiorgitiko’ and ‘Soultanina’ were susceptible, whereas ‘Asyrtiko’ and ‘Xinomavro’ were resistant; ‘Roditis’ showed an intermediate level of resistance. Cultivars’ resistance was mostly distinguished in terms of the extension of vascular browning and pathogen isolation ratio. On the contrary, the disease incidence, final disease severity, mortality and relative AUDPC provided less distinctive efficiency in resistance evaluation. The robust methodology presented here could be useful in rapid evaluation experiments for future screening programs to search and recognize natural resistant sources within grapevine genotypes against P. chlamydospora. © 2017 Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging

Dabbou S.,University of Sfax | Brahmi F.,University of Sfax | Taamali A.,Center de Biotechnologie de la Technopole de Borj-Cedria | Issaoui M.,University of Sfax | And 4 more authors.
JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society | Year: 2010

The effects of the contents of lipids, pigments, α-tocopherol and phenols were studied in relation to the antioxidant capacity of five virgin olive oils obtained from five olive cultivars planted in Tunisia (Arbequina, Koroneiki, Leccino, Oueslati and Chemchali). The antioxidant capacities were evaluated by two different radical scavenging activities: radical scavenging activity by the DPPH assay (RSA-DPPH) and total antioxidant status by the ABTS test (TAA-ABTS). The highest contents of antioxidant compounds (75.96, 10.34, 6.32, 15.39 and 241.52 mg kg-1 for oleic acid, O/L ratio, carotenes, chlorophylls and total phenols, respectively) were found for the Koroneiki cultivar except for a-tocopherol and o-diphenols, which had the highest contents (369 and 160.7 mg kg-1, respectively) in the Leccino and Chemchali cultivars (cvs). Furthermore, the highest antioxidant capacity in virgin olive oil was observed in the Koroneiki cultivar (0.24 mmol TE kg-1) followed by the Chemchali and Leccino cvs (0.22 and 0.13 mmol TE kg -1) for the TAA-ABTS test. However, the RSA-DPPH activity was higher for the Chemchali cultivar (19.9%) than for the Koroneiki and Leccino cvs (18.4 and 13.5%, respectively). Correlation between these capacities and the oil composition revealed that they were mainly influenced by the carotene content, followed by chlorophyll and phenolic contents where the ABTS test was more pronounced. Then, the antioxidant capacity of the virgin olive oils was correlated with polar components and the lipid profile which are important for its shelf life. © AOCS 2010.

Markakis E.A.,Institute of Olive Tree | Tjamos S.E.,Agricultural University of Athens | Antoniou P.P.,Agricultural University of Athens | Paplomatas E.J.,Agricultural University of Athens | Tjamos E.C.,Agricultural University of Athens
BioControl | Year: 2015

In the present study, the efficiency of the biocontrol agent Paenibacillus alvei (strain K165) to suppress Verticillium wilt of olive tree was evaluated in greenhouse and field experiments. In planta bioassays were conducted under greenhouse conditions and revealed that K165 significantly decreased symptoms on the susceptible cultivar ‘Amfissis’ by 44.5 and 51.6 % of the final disease severity index and relative area under disease progress curve (AUDPC), respectively. Thereafter, the suppressive effect of K165 against Verticillium dahliae was studied for two consecutive years (2007 and 2008) in a newly established olive orchard of the susceptible cv Amfissis and the resistant cv Kalamon, naturally infested with V. dahliae. The evaluation of K165 was carried out by recording symptoms, isolations and qPCR quantification of the pathogen in olive tissues. In both years, ‘Amfissis’ trees treated with K165 showed significantly lower final disease severity and relative AUDPC values compared to the non treated controls, whereas, in 2008 decreased symptom severity was associated with significantly lower V. dahliae DNA levels in plant tissues, indicating the suppressive effect of the biocontrol agent. However, no significant suppression was observed in ‘Kalamon’. Pathogen isolations along with qPCR quantification revealed a seasonal fluctuation of V. dahliae biomass in olive tissues with higher amounts occurring in May, and lower amounts in February, August and November. This is the first report of biological control of Verticillium wilt of olive tree under field conditions, associated with reduced pathogen levels inside the xylem tissues. © 2015 International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC)

PubMed | Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg, Bayer AG, Technical University of Cartagena, Institute of Olive Tree and 5 more.
Type: | Journal: Insect biochemistry and molecular biology | Year: 2016

Insect ryanodine receptors (RyR) are the molecular target-site for the recently introduced diamide insecticides. Diamides are particularly active on Lepidoptera pests, including tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). High levels of diamide resistance were recently described in some European populations of T.absoluta, however, the mechanisms of resistance remained unknown. In this study the molecular basis of diamide resistance was investigated in a diamide resistant strain from Italy (IT-GELA-SD4), and additional resistant field populations collected in Greece, Spain and Brazil. The genetics of resistance was investigated by reciprocally crossing strain IT-GELA-SD4 with a susceptible strain and revealed an autosomal incompletely recessive mode of inheritance. To investigate the possible role of target-site mutations as known from diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella), we sequenced respective domains of the RyR gene of T.absoluta. Genotyping of individuals of IT-GELA-SD4 and field-collected strains showing different levels of diamide resistance revealed the presence of G4903E and I4746M RyR target-site mutations. These amino acid substitutions correspond to those recently described for diamide resistant diamondback moth, i.e. G4946E and I4790M. We also detected two novel mutations, G4903V and I4746T, in some of the resistant T.absoluta strains. Radioligand binding studies with thoracic membrane preparations of the IT-GELA-SD4 strain provided functional evidence that these mutations alter the affinity of the RyR to diamides. In combination with previous work on P.xylostella our study highlights the importance of position G4903 (G4946 in P.xylostella) of the insect RyR in defining sensitivity to diamides. The discovery of diamide resistance mutations in T.absoluta populations of diverse geographic origin has serious implications for the efficacy of diamides under applied conditions. The implementation of appropriate resistance management strategies is strongly advised to delay the further spread of resistance.

PubMed | Benaki Phytopathological Institute, Institute of Olive Tree and University of Thessaly
Type: | Journal: FEMS microbiology ecology | Year: 2016

Synthetic carbamates constitute a significant pesticide group with oxamyl being a leading compound in the nematicides market. Oxamyl degradation in soil is mainly microbially mediated. However the distribution and function of carbamate hydrolase genes (cehA, mcd, cahA) associated with the soil biodegradation of carbamates is not yet clear. We studied oxamyl degradation in 16 soils from a potato monoculture area in Greece, where oxamyl is regularly used. Oxamyl showed low persistence (DT

Garantonakis N.,Institute of Olive tree | Varikou K.,Institute of Olive tree | Birouraki A.,Institute of Olive tree
Biocontrol Science and Technology | Year: 2016

A series of bioassays were conducted under laboratory conditions to determine the relative toxicities of various pesticides (acetamiprid, cypermethrin, chlorantraniliprole and emamectin benzoate, Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki and Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus, copper oxychloride, iprodione, mandipropamid, a mixture of propamocarb + fluopicolide and mixture of fludioxonil + cyprodinil) on Aphidius colemani adults and mummies, as well as sublethal effects on female fecundity. Cypermethrin was highly toxic to pupa of A. colemani within host mummies. Acetamiprid, cypermethrin, emamectin benzoate, a mixture of propamocarb + fluopicolide and mixture of fludioxonil + cyprodinil were also highly toxic to A. colemani adults (92–100% mortality at 48 h post treatment). Mandipropamid, iprodione and copper oxycloride treatments significantly reduced fecundity of the female parasitoids. In contrast B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki, H. armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus and chlorantraniliprole were harmless (<30% mortality) to the parasitoid species tested according to International Organisation for Biological Control toxicity classification and are likely to be compatible with integrated pest management programmes. © 2016 Taylor & Francis.

Kourgialas N.N.,Technical University of Crete | Kourgialas N.N.,Institute of Olive Tree | Karatzas G.P.,Technical University of Crete
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2015

The water flow and the mass transport of agrochemicals in the unsaturated and saturated zone were simulated in the extended alluvial basin of Keritis river in Crete, Greece (a predominantly flat and most productive citrus growing area) using the hydrological model MIKE SHE. This model was set up based on information on land use, geology, soil structure, meteorological data, as well as groundwater level data from pumping wells. Additionally, field measurements of the soil moisture at six different locations from three soil depths (0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 m) were used as targets to calibrate and validate the unsaturated flow model while for saturated condition, groundwater level data from three well locations were used. Following the modeling approach, the agrochemical mass transport simulation was performed as well, based on different application doses. After the successful calibration processes, the obtained 1D modeling results of soil moisture-pressure related to soil depth at different locations were used to design a proper and cost-effective irrigation programme (irrigation timing, frequency, application rates, etc.) for citrus orchards. The results of the present simulation showed a very good correlation with the field measurements. Based on these results, a proper irrigation plan can be designed at every site of the model domain reducing the water consumption up to 38 % with respect to the common irrigation practices and ensuring the citrus water productivity. In addition, the effect of the proposed irrigation scheduling on citrus yield was investigated. Regarding the agrochemical concentration in the groundwater for all dose cases was below the maximum permissible limit. The only exception was for the highest dose in areas where the water table is high. Thus, this modeling approach could be used as a tool for appropriate water management in an agricultural area estimating at each time and location the availability of soil water, contributing to a cost-effective irrigation plan. © 2015, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

Tzortzakakis E.A.,Institute of Olive Tree | Dos Santos M.-C.V.,University of Coimbra | Conceicao I.,University of Coimbra
Hellenic Plant Protection Journal | Year: 2016

The available published information on the occurrence of resistance-breaking populations of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) on resistant tomato in Greece is updated. Within the period 1994-2013, 13 populations (11 M. javanica and 2 M. incognita) able to reproduce on resistant tomato had been recorded in the regions of Crete, Epirus, Thrace, Peloponissos and Macedonia. In the present study six more resistance-breaking populations, four M. javanica and two M. incognita, were detected in the period 2013-2014, all originating from greenhouse vegetables in Crete. Four of these populations, two M. javanica and two M. incognita, originated from the region of Ierapetra. This is the first time that such populations are found in this major area of greenhouse vegetable production of Crete. © 2016 E.A. Tzortzakakis et al., published by De Gruyter Open 2016.

Garantonakis N.,Institute of Olive Tree | Varikou K.,Institute of Olive Tree | Birouraki A.,Institute of Olive Tree
Entomologia Generalis | Year: 2016

This paper presents the occurrence of high populations of the spotted wing drosophila fly, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera; Drosophilidae) in various regions of the Western part of Crete, Municipality of Chania. Clusters of berries of its perennial host pokeweed, Phytolacca americana (Caryophyllates: Phytolaccacae) were collected from olive and citrus orchards of several areas of Chania, in early winter of 2014. A total number of 440 D. suzukii adults were collected in 10 out of 13 studied areas. The pest was distributed along the coastland near the seaport of Souda which may represent the route of entry for this pest in Chania as well as a spreading pathway from or to the other neighboring prefectures of Crete (Rethymno, Iraklio, Lasithi). This study documents the presence and spread of high populations of D. suzukii in regions where its cultivated host plants do not exist, with its confirmed and predicted distribution. © 2016 E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, Germany.

PubMed | Institute of Olive Tree and Technological Educational Institute of Crete
Type: | Journal: The Science of the total environment | Year: 2017

Recent findings show that halophytes have the ability to accumulate salts in their tissues, making them a very interesting group of plants for domestic wastewater treatment in constructed wetlands (CWs). In that case, it might be possible to reduce the salinity of the final effluent, which is a crucial parameter for wastewater reuse in agriculture. During this study three halophytes, Atriplex halimus, Juncus acutus and Sarcocornia perennis, were tested for phyto-desalination of domestic wastewater in a vertical flow constructed wetland (VFCW) and compared with common reeds (Phragmites australis). In addition, the effect of this alternative vegetation on the overall performance of the system regarding organic matter, nutrients, boron and pathogen removal was monitored. The organic loading rate (OLR) was about 21gCOD/m

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