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Rahman M.M.,International Islamic University Malaysia | Rahman M.M.,Institute of Oceanography and Maritime Studies
Aquaculture Environment Interactions | Year: 2015

Using the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. in polyculture ponds to increase both phyto- and zooplankton availability has become a popular practice for the cultivation of plankti - vorous fish, such as rohu Labeo rohita Hamilton. However, the dynamics of how common carp influences the environment and ecology in polyculture ponds are unclear. In the present study, the effects of various stocking densities (0, 0.5 and 1 m-2) of common carp on the dynamics of nutrients, phytoplankton, zooplankton and benthic macroinvertebrates were investigated every other week over a 137 d period in rohu (density: 1.5 m-2) ponds under fed and unfed conditions. All environmental parameters and all groups of phytoplankton, zooplankton and benthic macroinvertebrates significantly changed over time, although trends in these changes were inconsistent at different common carp densities. The correlation between phosphate-phosphorus (PO4-P) and total phytoplankton biomass indicated that the phytoplankton biomass was limited by low PO4-P concentrations in ponds without common carp. Common carp-driven resuspension increased N and P fluxes from the sediment to the water column and subsequently increased primary and secondary production. A stocking density of 0.5 common carp m-2 had strong effects on nutrients and both phyto- and zooplankton availability, with an increasing trend over time. These effects were partially lost in ponds with 1 common carp m-2, which can be considered as overstocking. This study suggests that an optimal density of common carp can be used as a management tool to manipulate the aquaculture environment for better growth and production of fish. © The authors 2015.

Rahman M.M.,International Islamic University Malaysia | Rahman M.M.,Institute of Oceanography and Maritime Studies
Frontiers in Life Science | Year: 2015

Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is considered to be a very important aquaculture species in many Asian and some European countries. It affects the aerobic decomposition of organic matter and nutrient availability in the water column via bioturbation of benthic sediment during feeding on benthic organisms. If the density of common carp is not excessive, an increase in nutrient availability may enhance photosynthesis and plankton production, whereas if it is excessive, it causes dramatic ecological disruption at both the community and ecosystem levels by changing the abiotic properties of the water. Therefore, the density of common carp is a very important factor that has a great effect on the aquatic ecosystem. The critical density of common carp largely depends on its habitat. In polyculture ponds, water quality, natural food resources and fish growth are strongly affected when the density of common carp approaches more than about 1000 kg ha−1. The critical density can be doubled if artificial feed is supplied to the carp. When its preferred food is not sufficient, the common carp switches to less preferred food and changes its behaviour and feeding niche. These factors make common carp a potential candidate not only for monoculture but also for polyculture ponds. This article reviews the role of common carp on the aquatic ecosystem, and the production and behaviour of fish in aquaculture production systems. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.

Rahman M.M.,International Islamic University Malaysia | Rahman M.M.,Institute of Oceanography and Maritime Studies | Noor N.M.,International Islamic University Malaysia | Noor N.M.,Institute of Oceanography and Maritime Studies | And 4 more authors.
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2016

A study was conducted to know the (i) effect of anthropogenic activity and (ii) effects of distance from shoreline on the coastal water quality of Tioman Island, Malaysia. This study was a part of marine expedition conducted on 4 July 2012 to understand coral diversity and distribution around coastal water of Tioman Island. A series of physicochemical parameters namely temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, salinity, transparency, total suspended solids, nitrate, ammonia, phosphate phosphorus, and silicate were determined in this study. A total of 16 different study sites (stations 1–16) were selected in the coastal water around the Tioman Island. Half of the study sites was located within 1 km from the shoreline and other half was located approximately 6 km away from the shoreline. Some study sites are characterized by no human activity, while some sites are characterized by diving activities. A few study sites are characterized with both diving activity and near residential area. The overall mean values of different water quality parameters recorded in the all sampling stations were temperature 27.98 ± 0.40°C, pH 8.34 ± 0.02, DO 6.92 ± 0.43 (mg l−1), salinity 33.54 ± 0.11 pss, TSS 0.39 ± 0.03 g l−1, nitrate 0.85 ± 0.55 μM, ammonia 1.89 ± 0.56 μM, phosphate 0.16 ± 0.09 μM, and silicate 2.62 ± 0.76 μM. Temperature, DO, transparency, salinity, and ammonia were significantly affected by anthropogenic activity, while anthropogenic activity had no significant effect on pH, total suspended solids, nitrate, and phosphate. No significant difference was observed between the water quality of 1 km from shoreline and 6 km away from shoreline. Good and careful management by the authorities of this island may save the biodiversity and beauty of the coastal water of Tioman Island. Therefore, a balance between human activity and conservation of biodiversity on the coastal water of Tioman Island is needed. © 2015 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

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