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Sunday J.M.,University of British Columbia | Sunday J.M.,Simon Fraser University | Popovic I.,Simon Fraser University | Palen W.J.,Simon Fraser University | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Ecology

Understanding the movement of genes and individuals across marine seascapes is a long-standing challenge in marine ecology and can inform our understanding of local adaptation, the persistence and movement of populations, and the spatial scale of effective management. Patterns of gene flow in the ocean are often inferred based on population genetic analyses coupled with knowledge of species' dispersive life histories. However, genetic structure is the result of time-integrated processes and may not capture present-day connectivity between populations. Here, we use a high-resolution oceanographic circulation model to predict larval dispersal along the complex coastline of western Canada that includes the transition between two well-studied zoogeographic provinces. We simulate dispersal in a benthic sea star with a 6-10 week pelagic larval phase and test predictions of this model against previously observed genetic structure including a strong phylogeographic break within the zoogeographical transition zone. We also test predictions with new genetic sampling in a site within the phylogeographic break. We find that the coupled genetic and circulation model predicts the high degree of genetic structure observed in this species, despite its long pelagic duration. High genetic structure on this complex coastline can thus be explained through ocean circulation patterns, which tend to retain passive larvae within 20-50 km of their parents, suggesting a necessity for close-knit design of Marine Protected Area networks. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Woudneh M.B.,AXYS Analytical Services Ltd. Sidney | Ross P.S.,Institute of Ocean science Fisheries and Oceans Canada
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry

Spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus) are fish-eating crocodilians that inhabit freshwater habitat in tropical regions of the Americas. To assess the exposure of caiman to pesticides from banana plantations, the authors collected whole blood samples (30mL) from 14 adult caiman that were captured in the North Atlantic region of Costa Rica. Blood samples were analyzed for 70 legacy- and current-use pesticides and breakdown products using newly developed ultra-trace, high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Caiman accumulated pesticides ranked by concentration as dieldrin>permethrin>mirex>4,4′-DDE>alpha-endosulfan>heptachlor epoxide>oxychlordane>heptachlor>cypermethrin. Caiman within the high-intensity banana crop watershed of Rio Suerte had higher pesticide burdens relative to other more remote locations (F=12.79; p=0.00). Pesticide concentration decreased with distance from upstream banana plantations in this river system (F=20.76; p=0.00). Caiman body condition was negatively correlated with total pesticide concentrations (F=6.23; p=0.02) and with proximity to banana plantations (F=5.05; p=0.04). This suggests that either pesticides elicited toxic effects in caiman, resulting in diminished overall health, or that the quantity or quality of their prey was reduced by pesticides downstream of plantation waterways. The authors' results indicate that pesticide use in banana plantations is impacting a high trophic level species inhabiting one of the most important wilderness areas in Costa Rica (Tortuguero National Park). © 2013 SETAC. Source

Goulding A.T.,Simon Fraser University | Shelley L.K.,Simon Fraser University | Ross P.S.,Institute of Ocean science Fisheries and Oceans Canada | Kennedy C.J.,Simon Fraser University
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - C Toxicology and Pharmacology

While the lethal toxicity of pyrethroid insecticides to fish is well documented, their sublethal physio-behavioral effects remain poorly characterized. Known pyrethroid-associated changes to insect neuromuscular function may translate into similar effects in fish, thereby altering swimming ability and affecting foraging, predator avoidance, and migration. Three experiments were conducted using critical (Ucrit) and burst (U max) swimming speeds to assess the sublethal effects of the pyrethroids permethrin and deltamethrin in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish were exposed to deltamethrin (100, 200, or 300 ng/L) or permethrin (1, 2, or 3 μg/L) in water for 4 d, and assessed for swimming performance. Deltamethrin (200 and 300 ng/L) reduced Ucrit, but not U max, while both swim performance measurements were unaffected by permethrin. Subsequent experiments used only Ucrit to assess deltamethrin exposure. In a time course experiment, deltamethrin (300 ng/L) reduced Ucrit after 1 and 4 d of exposure, but after 7 d of exposure Ucrit was fully recovered. Finally, deltamethrin (1, 2, or 3 μg/L) reduced Ucrit after 1 h bath exposures similar to recommended protocols for deltamethrin based sea-lice treatment in aquaculture. The real-world implications of the revealed pyrethroid-associated swimming ability reductions in salmon may be important in areas close to aquaculture facilities. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc. Source

Nguyen T.D.,Michigan State University | Thupaki P.,Michigan State University | Thupaki P.,Institute of Ocean science Fisheries and Oceans Canada | Anderson E.J.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Phanikumar M.S.,Michigan State University
Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans

We use a three-dimensional, unstructured grid hydrodynamic model to examine circulation and exchange in the Saginaw Bay-Lake Huron system during the summer months for three consecutive years (2009-2011). The model was tested against ADCP observations of currents, data from a Lagrangian drifter experiment in the Saginaw Bay, and temperature data from the National Data Buoy Center stations. Mean circulation was predominantly cyclonic in the main basin of Lake Huron with current speeds in the surface layer being highest in August. Circulation in the Saginaw Bay was characterized by the presence of an anticyclonic gyre at the mouth of the outer bay and two recirculating cells within the inner bay. New estimates are provided for the mean flushing times (computed as the volume of the bay divided by the rate of inflow) and residence times (computed as e-folding flushing times based on dye concentration modeling treating the bay as a continuously stirred tank reactor) for Saginaw Bay. The average flushing time (over the 3 months of summer and for all 3 years) was 23.0 days for the inner bay and 9.9 days for the entire bay. The mean e-folding flushing time was 62 days (2 months) for the inner bay and 115 days (3.7 months) for the entire bay for the summer conditions examined in this work. To characterize the behavior of river plumes in the inner Saginaw Bay, trajectory data from GPS-enabled Lagrangian drifters were used to compute the absolute diffusivity values in the alongshore and cross-shore directions. Key Points We model circulation and thermal structure in Saginaw Bay and Lake Huron New estimates for residence times and exchange between the bay and the main lake Estimated diffusivities using Lagrangian drifters and particle transport models © 2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Source

Shelley L.K.,Simon Fraser University | Ross P.S.,Institute of Ocean science Fisheries and Oceans Canada | Miller K.M.,Pacific Biological Station Fisheries and Oceans Canada | Kaukinen K.H.,Pacific Biological Station Fisheries and Oceans Canada | Kennedy C.J.,Simon Fraser University
Aquatic Toxicology

Atrazine (ATZ) and nonylphenol (NP) are commonly identified contaminants in aquatic habitats; however, few studies have considered the impact of these endocrine disrupters on immune function and resistance to disease. This study examined the immunotoxicological effects of ATZ and NP at multiple levels of biological organization. Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to a solvent control (0.00625%, v/v anhydrous ethanol), or sub-lethal concentrations of ATZ (59 μg/L and 555 μg/L) or NP (2.3 μg/L or 18 μg/L) for 4. d. At the end of exposure, fish were assessed for a number of physiological endpoints, including a host resistance challenge, and liver gene expression was assessed using a salmonid microarray (cGRASP, 32K version 1). While the low ATZ and low NP treatments had no measurable effects on the physiological endpoints measured, fish exposed to the high ATZ concentration (555 μg/L) exhibited significantly elevated plasma cortisol, a decrease in SSI, and decreased lymphocytes and increased monocytes in peripheral blood, with suppression of early immune system processes apparent at the molecular level. In contrast, fish exposed to the high NP concentration (18 μg/L) showed physiological (e.g. significantly elevated LSI) and gene expression changes (e.g. induction of vitellogenin) consistent with estrogenic effects, as well as decreased lymphocytes in the peripheral blood and more limited alterations in immune system related pathways in the liver transcriptome. Fish exposed to high ATZ or NP concentrations incurred higher mortality than control fish following a disease challenge with Listonella anguillarum, while fish exposed to the lower concentrations were unaffected. Microarray analysis of the liver transcriptome revealed a total of 211 unique, annotated differentially regulated genes (DRGs) following high ATZ exposure and 299 DRGs following high NP exposure. Functional (enrichment) analysis revealed effects on immune system function, metabolism, oxygen homeostasis, cell cycle, DNA damage, and other processes affected by ATZ or NP exposure. Overall, this study provides evidence at multiple levels of biological organization that both ATZ and NP are immunotoxic at sub-lethal concentrations and highlights the potential risk posed by these chemicals to wild fish populations. © 2012. Source

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