IOM Institute of Occupational Medicine
IOM Institute of Occupational Medicine
Schneider T.,Kogemestervej 13 |
Schneider T.,National Research Center for the Working Environment |
Brouwer D.H.,TNO |
Koponen I.K.,National Research Center for the Working Environment |
And 5 more authors.
Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology | Year: 2011
As workplace air measurements of manufactured nanoparticles are relatively expensive to conduct, models can be helpful for a first tier assessment of exposure. A conceptual model was developed to give a framework for such models. The basis for the model is an analysis of the fate and underlying mechanisms of nanoparticles emitted by a source during transport to a receptor. Four source domains are distinguished; that is, production, handling of bulk product, dispersion of ready-to-use nanoproducts, fracturing and abrasion of end products. These domains represent different generation mechanisms that determine particle emission characteristics; for example, emission rate, particle size distribution, and source location. During transport, homogeneous coagulation, scavenging, and surface deposition will determine the fate of the particles and cause changes in both particle size distributions and number concentrations. The degree of impact of these processes will be determined by a variety of factors including the concentration and size mode of the emitted nanoparticles and background aerosols, source to receptor distance, and ventilation characteristics. The second part of the paper focuses on to what extent the conceptual model could be fit into an existing mechanistic predictive model for conventional exposures. The model should be seen as a framework for characterization of exposure to (manufactured) nanoparticles and future exposure modeling. © 2011 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.
PubMed | The BMJ, Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare, University of Stuttgart, Center for Research and Technology Hellas and 11 more.
Type: | Journal: Environmental health : a global access science source | Year: 2016
Climate change is a global threat to health and wellbeing. Here we provide findings of an international research project investigating the health and wellbeing impacts of policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in urban environments.Five European and two Chinese city authorities and partner academic organisations formed the project consortium. The methodology involved modelling the impact of adopted urban climate-change mitigation transport, buildings and energy policy scenarios, usually for the year 2020 and comparing them with business as usual (BAU) scenarios (where policies had not been adopted). Carbon dioxide emissions, health impacting exposures (air pollution, noise and physical activity), health (cardiovascular, respiratory, cancer and leukaemia) and wellbeing (including noise related wellbeing, overall wellbeing, economic wellbeing and inequalities) were modelled. The scenarios were developed from corresponding known levels in 2010 and pre-existing exposure response functions. Additionally there were literature reviews, three longitudinal observational studies and two cross sectional surveys.There are four key findings. Firstly introduction of electric cars may confer some small health benefits but it would be unwise for a city to invest in electric vehicles unless their power generation fuel mix generates fewer emissions than petrol and diesel. Second, adopting policies to reduce private car use may have benefits for carbon dioxide reduction and positive health impacts through reduced noise and increased physical activity. Third, the benefits of carbon dioxide reduction from increasing housing efficiency are likely to be minor and co-benefits for health and wellbeing are dependent on good air exchange. Fourthly, although heating dwellings by in-home biomass burning may reduce carbon dioxide emissions, consequences for health and wellbeing were negative with the technology in use in the cities studied.The climate-change reduction policies reduced CO2 emissions (the most common greenhouse gas) from cities but impact on global emissions of CO2 would be more limited due to some displacement of emissions. The health and wellbeing impacts varied and were often limited reflecting existing relatively high quality of life and environmental standards in most of the participating cities; the greatest potential for future health benefit occurs in less developed or developing countries.