Schneider T.,Kogemestervej 13 |
Schneider T.,National Research Center for the Working Environment |
Brouwer D.H.,TNO |
Koponen I.K.,National Research Center for the Working Environment |
And 5 more authors.
Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology
As workplace air measurements of manufactured nanoparticles are relatively expensive to conduct, models can be helpful for a first tier assessment of exposure. A conceptual model was developed to give a framework for such models. The basis for the model is an analysis of the fate and underlying mechanisms of nanoparticles emitted by a source during transport to a receptor. Four source domains are distinguished; that is, production, handling of bulk product, dispersion of ready-to-use nanoproducts, fracturing and abrasion of end products. These domains represent different generation mechanisms that determine particle emission characteristics; for example, emission rate, particle size distribution, and source location. During transport, homogeneous coagulation, scavenging, and surface deposition will determine the fate of the particles and cause changes in both particle size distributions and number concentrations. The degree of impact of these processes will be determined by a variety of factors including the concentration and size mode of the emitted nanoparticles and background aerosols, source to receptor distance, and ventilation characteristics. The second part of the paper focuses on to what extent the conceptual model could be fit into an existing mechanistic predictive model for conventional exposures. The model should be seen as a framework for characterization of exposure to (manufactured) nanoparticles and future exposure modeling. © 2011 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved. Source