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Kosmider L.,Institute of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health | Kosmider L.,University of Silesia | Sobczak A.,Institute of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health | Sobczak A.,University of Silesia | And 5 more authors.
Nicotine and Tobacco Research | Year: 2014

Introduction: Glycerin (VG) and propylene glycol (PG) are the most common nicotine solvents used in e-cigarettes (ECs). It has been shown that at high temperatures both VG and PG undergo decomposition to low molecular carbonyl compounds, including the carcinogens formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. The aim of this study was to evaluate how various product characteristics, including nicotine solvent and battery output voltage, affect the levels of carbonyls in EC vapor. Methods: Twelve carbonyl compounds were measured in vapors from 10 commercially available nicotine solutions and from 3 control solutions composed of pure glycerin, pure propylene glycol, or a mixture of both solvents (50:50). EC battery output voltage was gradually modified from 3.2 to 4.8 V. Carbonyl compounds were determined using the HPLC/DAD method. Results: Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were found in 8 of 13 samples. The amounts of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in vapors from lower voltage EC were on average 13- and 807-fold lower than in tobacco smoke, respectively. The highest levels of carbonyls were observed in vapors generated from PG-based solutions. Increasing voltage from 3.2 to 4.8 V resulted in a 4 to more than 200 times increase in formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acetone levels. The levels of formaldehyde in vapors from high-voltage device were in the range of levels reported in tobacco smoke. Conclusions: Vapors from EC contain toxic and carcinogenic carbonyl compounds. Both solvent and battery output voltage significantly affect levels of carbonyl compounds in EC vapors. High-voltage EC may expose users to high levels of carbonyl compounds. © The Author 2014.


Czech B.,University of Silesia | Lodowski P.,University of Silesia | Marczak W.,Institute of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
Chemical Physics Letters | Year: 2013

Experimental excess molar isentropic compressions for six binary systems: (pyridine, 2-methylpyridine or 2,6-dimethylpyridine) + (water or methanol) are correlated with the calculated theoretically association energies of the ROH⋯NA complexes that increase in the order: pyridine < 2-methylpyridine < 2,6-dimethylpyridine. In spite of stronger O-H⋯N bonds, the negative excesses for methanolic systems are smaller than for the aqueous ones. That is mainly because of the aggregation of water-amine complexes due to the O-H⋯O bonds. Differences in partial molar compressions of the amines in water and methanol solvents result most probably from the hydrophobic hydration in aqueous solutions. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Adamek E.,University of Silesia | Baran W.,University of Silesia | Sobczak A.,Institute of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental | Year: 2015

The addition of Fe3+ salts to a TiO2 suspension is one of the methods used to extend the useful radiation range in photocatalytic processes. The aim of this study was to determine how the presence of FeCl3 affects the photocatalytic reaction mechanism and TiO2 activity under UVa and vis irradiation.The photocatalytic degradation of eleven sulfonamides was investigated in the presence of a TiO2-P25 suspension, FeCl3 and a TiO2/FeCl3 mixture.The addition of FeCl3 decreased the TiO2 activity under vis light irradiation but the photocatalytic degradation rate of sulfonamides improved significantly under UVa irradiation. For example, the initial photodegradation rate of sulfisoxazole increased approximately 85 times. The processes carried out in the TiO2/FeCl3 mixture were less sensitive to the presence of free radical scavengers, and the photocatalytic reaction rates were directly proportional to the concentrations of cationic form of the substrates. This result indicates that the photocatalytic degradation rate of the sulfonamides depends on the possibility for direct oxidation of the cationic form of the substrate and its interaction with the catalyst particles via labile electrostatic interactions. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Brewczynski P.Z.,Children of the Institute of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health | Brodziak A.,Institute of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
Medical Science Monitor | Year: 2015

Studies show that a significant proportion of young people suffering from childhood onset asthma later recovered, usually in adolescence. In this article we argue that an understanding of the differences between children who recover from asthma and those who do not would contribute to increased understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of the disease and could provide new clues about prevention and treatment. We note that some researchers have recently published results from these kinds of investigations. This paper reports results regarding genetic determinants, distorted mechanisms of inflammation, and mind/body relationships. We also try to integrate findings from these 3 areas to formulate general conclusions about the pathogenesis of asthma. © Med Sci Monit.


Karbowska-Berent J.,Nicolaus Copernicus University | Gorny R.L.,Central Institute for Labour Protection | Strzelczyk A.B.,Nicolaus Copernicus University | Wlazlo A.,Institute of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
Building and Environment | Year: 2011

The aims of this work were to quantitatively and qualitatively study culturable fungi and bacteria in the air and settled dust in the storerooms of five Polish libraries and archives as well as to estimate the effect of water intrusion on the microbial air quality indoors. In all studied storerooms, the total bioaerosol concentrations at the workplaces ranged from 100 to 1000 cfu/m3. The most prevalent part of the storerooms' bioaerosol consisted of bacteria, mainly Staphylococcus spp. and Micrococcus spp., followed by filamentous fungi. In four of the studied premises, fungal aerosol concentrations were below 100 cfu/m3. The only exception was observed in the fifth storeroom, which has been periodically flooded with rainwater and where significantly higher concentrations of fungal aerosol were measured. Among the identified fungal species, those of the genus Penicillium were the most numerous. Moreover, Trichothecium laxicephalum and Alternaria tenuis were present in all of the examined storerooms.The other objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of renovation and mechanical cleaning of the flooded storeroom collection on the level of microbial contamination. The obtained results show that both of the applied procedures reduced the concentration of fungal and bacterial aerosols by almost 80% and 50%, respectively. A significant reduction in the number of airborne microbial species was also noted. Hence, if the source of moisture is removed and mechanical cleaning is subsequently applied, the hygienic quality of a storeroom collection can be significantly improved. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Sas-Nowosielska H.,Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology | Pawlas N.,Institute of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
Acta Biochimica Polonica | Year: 2015

People are exposed to heavy metals both in an occupational and natural environment. The most pronounced effects of heavy metals result from their interaction with cellular genetic material packed in form of chromatin. Heavy metals influence chromatin, mimicking and substituting natural microelements in various processes taking place in the cell, or interacting chemically with nuclear components: nucleic acids, proteins and lipids. This paper is a review of current knowledge on the effects of heavy metals on chromatin, exerted at the level of various nuclear components.


Baran W.,Silesian Medical University | Adamek E.,Silesian Medical University | Ziemianska J.,Institute of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health | Sobczak A.,Silesian Medical University | Sobczak A.,Institute of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2011

World production and consumption of pharmaceuticals has been steadily increasing. Anti-infectives have been particularly important in modern therapy of microbial infection. Sulfonamides have been widely used for a long time as anti-infectives and are still widely prescribed today. This review presents the most common types of sulfonamides used in healthcare and veterinary medicine and discusses the problems connected with their presence in the biosphere. Based on the analysis of over 160 papers, it was found that small amounts of sulfonamides present in the environment were mainly derived from agricultural activities. These drugs have caused changes in the population of microbes that could be potentially hazardous to human health. This human health hazard could have a global range, and administrative activities have been ineffective in risk reduction. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Lis D.O.,Institute of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health | Gorny R.L.,Central Institute for Labour Protection
American Journal of Infection Control | Year: 2013

Background: The aim of this study was to assess the exposure of children to airborne Haemophilus influenzae in day care centers. Methods: Air samples were taken using an Andersen impactor in 32 rooms designed for children stay. The concentrations of airborne bacteria were calculated as colony forming units (CFU) (growing on trypticase soy agar) per cubic meter of air (CFU/m 3). The compositions of bioaerosol were determined on blood trypticase soy agar and Haemophilus selective agar. Isolated strains were identified using API NH strips and apiweb software. The antibiotic resistance of H influenzae strains was determined by the disk diffusion method. Results: Compared with the proposed criteria for microbiologic quality of indoor air, the rooms were characterized by the very high bacterial contamination of the air. The prevailing component of bacterial aerosol was gram-positive cocci. Airborne H influenzae strains were found in 25% of the investigated rooms and were mostly classified as biotype II (33%). Conclusion: It may be accepted that the exposure to airborne H influenzae is typical of child day care centers in contrast to indoor environments with older population. Child day care center contribute to the expansion of H influenzae in human population via air. Generally, airborne H influenzae isolates from the investigated child day care centers were susceptible to older antibiotics such as ampicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. Copyright © 2013 by the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Brodziak A.,Institute of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
Clinical and Experimental Medical Letters | Year: 2012

Many authors have commented on the clinical need for objective markers of the existence of severe depressive episodes. They point out that, although thus far no single factor has been discovered that can be used as a reliable marker, many features have been recognized that may play a role in such indicators as long as they are combined in a multivariate panel of indices. Elevated levels of certain biochemical substances and specific characteristics of gene polymorphisms have been recognized as signs of major depression. Also, there are characteristic changes recognized by methods of structural and functional brain imaging, especially the so-called parameters of functional connectivity in the brain. In this paper I review the biochemical substances that can act as markers of severe depression and discuss the importance of biochemical substances that are indicators of inflammation (eg, CRP, TNF and proinflammatory cytokines). I also discuss the importance of manifestations of oxidative stress and the role of BDNF. I propose an original hypothesis stating that in attempting to differentiate major depression from mood disorders induced by existential events, an efficient biomarker of severe depression may be the altered behavior of the concentrations of these substances after a suicide attempt. © Clin Exp Med Lett.


Pavanello S.,University of Padua | Dioni L.,University of Milan | Hoxha M.,University of Milan | Fedeli U.,Sistema Epidemiologico Regione Veneto SER | And 2 more authors.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention | Year: 2013

Background: Increased mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) is a biologic response to mtDNA damage and dysfunction, predictive of lung cancer risk. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are established lung carcinogens and may cause mitochondrial toxicity. Whether PAH exposure and PAH-related nuclear DNA (nDNA) genotoxic effects are linked with increased mtDNAcn has never been evaluated. Methods: We investigated the effect of chronic exposure to PAHs on mtDNAcn in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) of 46 Polish male noncurrent smoking coke-oven workers and 44 matched controls, who were part of a group of 94 study individuals examined in our previous work. Subjects' PAH exposure and genetic alterations were characterized through measures of internal dose (urinary 1-pyrenol), target dose [antibenzo[ a]pyrene diolepoxide (anti-BPDE)-DNA adduct], genetic instability (micronuclei and telomere length), and DNA methylation (p53 promoter) in PBLs. mtDNAcn (MT/S) was measured using a validated real-time PCR method. Results: Workers with PAH exposure above the median value (>3 mmol 1-pyrenol/mol creatinine) showed highermtDNAcn[geometric means (GM) of 1.06 (unadjusted) and 1.07 (age-adjusted)] compared with controls [GM 0.89 (unadjusted); 0.89 (age-adjusted); (P = 0.029 and 0.016)], as well as higher levels of genetic and chromosomal [i.e., anti-BPDE-DNA adducts (P < 0.001), micronuclei (P < 0.001), and telomere length (P=0.053)] and epigenetic [i.e., p53 gene-specific promoter methylation (P < 0.001)] alterations in the nDNA. In the whole study population, unadjusted and age-adjusted mtDNAcn was positively correlated with 1-pyrenol (P = 0.043 and 0.032) and anti-BPDE-DNA adducts (P = 0.046 and 0.049). Conclusions:PAHexposure and PAH-relatednDNAgenotoxicity are associated with increased mtDNAcn. Impact: The present study is suggestive of potential roles of mtDNAcn in PAH-induced carcinogenesis. © 2013 American Association for Cancer Research.

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