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Riccarton, United Kingdom

Murphy F.A.,Queens Medical Research Institute | Schinwald A.,Queens Medical Research Institute | Poland C.A.,Institute of Occupational Medicine | Donaldson K.,Queens Medical Research Institute
Particle and Fibre Toxicology | Year: 2012

Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are high aspect ratio nanoparticles with diameters in the nanometre range but lengths extending up to hundreds of microns. The structural similarities between CNT and asbestos have raised concern that they may pose a similar inhalation hazard. Recently CNT have been shown to elicit a length-dependent, asbestos-like inflammatory response in the pleural cavity of mice, where long fibres caused inflammation but short fibres did not. However the cellular mechanisms governing this response have yet to be elucidated. This study examined the in vitro effects of a range of CNT for their ability to stimulate the release of the acute phase cytokines; IL-1β, TNFα, IL-6 and the chemokine, IL-8 from both Met5a mesothelial cells and THP-1 macrophages. Results showed that direct exposure to CNT resulted in significant cytokine release from the macrophages but not mesothelial cells. This pro-inflammatory response was length dependent but modest and was shown to be a result of frustrated phagocytosis. Furthermore the indirect actions of the CNT were examined by treating the mesothelial cells with conditioned media from CNT-treated macrophages. This resulted in a dramatic amplification of the cytokine release from the mesothelial cells, a response which could be attenuated by inhibition of phagocytosis during the initial macrophage CNT treatments. We therefore hypothesise that long fibres elicit an inflammatory response in the pleural cavity via frustrated phagocytosis in pleural macrophages. The activated macrophages then stimulate an amplified pro-inflammatory cytokine response from the adjacent pleural mesothelial cells. This mechanism for producing a pro-inflammatory environment in the pleural space exposed to long CNT has implications for the general understanding of fibre-related pleural disease and design of safe nanofibres. © 2012 Murphy et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Schinwald A.,Queens Medical Research Institute | Murphy F.A.,Queens Medical Research Institute | Jones A.,Institute of Occupational Medicine | MacNee W.,Queens Medical Research Institute | Donaldson K.,Queens Medical Research Institute
ACS Nano | Year: 2012

Figure Persented: Graphene is a new nanomaterial with unusual and useful physical and chemical properties. However, in the form of nanoplatelets this new, emerging material could pose unusual risks to the respiratory system after inhalation exposure. The graphene-based nanoplatelets used in this study are commercially available and consist of several sheets of graphene (few-layer graphene). We first derived the respirability of graphene nanoplatelets (GP) from the basic principles of the aerodynamic behavior of plate-shaped particles which allowed us to calculate their aerodynamic diameter. This showed that the nanoplatelets, which were up to 25 μm in diameter, were respirable and so would deposit beyond the ciliated airways following inhalation. We therefore utilized models of pharyngeal aspiration and direct intrapleural installation of GP, as well as an in vitro model, to assess their inflammatory potential. These large but respirable GP were inflammogenic in both the lung and the pleural space. MIP-1α, MCP-1, MIP-2, IL-8, and IL-1β expression in the BAL, the pleural lavage, and cell culture supernatant from THP-1 macrophages were increased with GP exposure compared to controls but not with nanoparticulate carbon black (CB). In vitro, macrophages exposed to GP showed expression of IL-1β. This study highlights the importance of nanoplatelet form as a driver for in vivo and in vitro inflammogenicity by virtue of their respirable aerodynamic diameter, despite a considerable 2-dimensional size which leads to frustrated phagocytosis when they deposit in the distal lungs and macrophages attempt to phagocytose them. Our data suggest that nanoplatelets pose a novel nanohazard and structure-toxicity relationship in nanoparticle toxicology. © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: NMP-01-2014 | Award Amount: 5.48M | Year: 2015

The CO-PILOT project addresses the field of nanocomposites which has witnessed remarkable progress (compound annual growth rate of 18%) in recent years with many different types of nanocomposites exhibiting radically enhanced properties for a wide range of industrial applications. The CO-PILOT project aims to develop an open access infrastructure for SMEs interested in the production of high quality (multi-)functional nanocomposites on a pilot scale. In CO-PILOT this infrastructure will be prepared for access (open acess) by SMEs beyond the project. It will be able to produce typically 20 to 100 kg nanocomposite product, characterize it and validate its performance. This is sufficient to make management decisions to progress to the next step of new nanocomposite product development. CO-PILOT aims to set new standards for high-quality nanoparticle production with the assistance of in-line nanoparticle dispersion quality monitoring. CO-PILOT chooses to develop a centrifuge module to address the adequate and automated down-stream processing of the nanoparticle dispersions. CO-PILOT will test and validate the pilot line infrastructure. Based on the consultation of SME nanocomposite producers, CO-PILOT has chosen the following range of industrial nanocomposite applications : - flame and smoke inhibiting polymer materials (layered double hydroxides) - acid scavenging used as anti-corrosion and in polymer stabilisation (layered hydroxides) - heat isolating plastics (hollow/porous silica) - light-weight flame inhibiting composites (layered hydroxides combined with hollow/porous silica) - UV protective polymer coatings (zinc oxide, titanium dioxide) - high refractive index, visually transparent polymer (titanium dioxide) - low-refractive index polymer (hollow/porous silica) - anti-glare polymer coatings (hollow/porous silica) - magnetic recoverable catalyst nano-composite beads (magnetite).

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: NMP-02-2015 | Award Amount: 6.98M | Year: 2015

Nanocomposites are promising for many sectors, as they can make polymers stronger, less water and gas permeable, tune surface properties, add functionalities such as antimicrobial effects. In spite of intensive research activities, significant efforts are still needed to deploy the full potential of nanotechnology in the industry. The main challenge is still obtaining a proper nanostructuring of the nanoparticles, especially when transferring it to industrial scale, further improvements are clearly needed in terms of processing and control. The OptiNanoPro project will develop different approaches for the introduction of nanotechnology into packaging, automotive and photovoltaic materials production lines. In particular, the project will focus on the development and industrial integration of tailored online dispersion and monitoring systems to ensure a constant quality of delivered materials. In terms of improved functionalities, nanotechnology can provide packaging with improved barrier properties as well as repellent properties resulting in easy-to-empty features that will on the one hand reduce wastes at consumer level and, on the other hand, improve their acceptability by recyclers. Likewise, solar panels can be self-cleaning to increase their effectiveness and extend the period between their maintenance and their lifetime by filtering UV light leading to material weathering. In the automotive sector, lightweight parts can be obtained for greater fuel efficiency. To this end, a group of end-user industries from Europe covering the supply and value chain of the 3 target sectors and using a range of converting processes such as coating and lamination, compounding, injection/co-injection and electrospray nanodeposition, supported by selected RTDs and number of technological SMEs, will work together on integrating new nanotechnologies in existing production lines, while also taking into account nanosafety, environmental, productivity and cost-effectiveness issues.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: NMP-19-2015 | Award Amount: 7.99M | Year: 2016

In the wind power generation, aerospace and other industry sectors there is an emerging need to operate in the low temperature and highly erosive environments of extreme weather conditions. Such conditions mean current materials either have a very short operational lifetime or demand such significant maintenance as to render many applications either very expensive to operate or in some cases non-viable. EIROS will develop self-renewing, erosion resistant and anti-icing materials for composite aerofoils and composite structures that can be adapted by different industrial applications: wind turbine blades and aerospace wing leading edges, cryogenic tanks and automotive facia. The addition of novel multi-functional additives to the bulk resin of fibre reinforced composites will allow the achievement of these advanced functionalities. Multi-scale numerical modelling methods will be adopted to enable a materials by design approach to the development of materials with novel structural hierarchies. These are capable of operating in severe operating environments. The technologies developed in this project will provide the partners with a significant competitive advantage. The modification of thermosets resins for use in fibre composite resins represents both a chemically appropriate and highly flexible route to the development of related materials with different applications. It also builds onto existing supply chains which are represented within the partnership and provides for European materials and technological leadership and which can assess and demonstrate scalability. The partnership provides for an industry led project with four specific end users providing both market pull and commercial drive to further progress the materials technology beyond the lifetime of the project.

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