Institute of Occupational Health and Poison Control

Chinese, China

Institute of Occupational Health and Poison Control

Chinese, China
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Rappaport S.M.,University of California at Berkeley | Kim S.,Seoul National University | Lan Q.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Li G.,Institute of Occupational Health and Poison Control | And 6 more authors.
Chemico-Biological Interactions | Year: 2010

We previously reported evidence that humans metabolize benzene via two enzymes, including a hitherto unrecognized high-affinity enzyme that was responsible for an estimated 73% of total urinary metabolites [sum of phenol (PH), hydroquinone (HQ), catechol (CA), E,E-muconic acid (MA), and S-phenylmercapturic acid (SPMA)] in nonsmoking females exposed to benzene at sub-saturating (ppb) air concentrations. Here, we used the same Michaelis-Menten-like kinetic models to individually analyze urinary levels of PH, HQ, CA and MA from 263 nonsmoking Chinese women (179 benzene-exposed workers and 84 control workers) with estimated benzene air concentrations ranging from less than 0.001-299. ppm. One model depicted benzene metabolism as a single enzymatic process (1-enzyme model) and the other as two enzymatic processes which competed for access to benzene (2-enzyme model). We evaluated model fits based upon the difference in values of Akaike's Information Criterion (ΔAIC), and we gauged the weights of evidence favoring the two models based upon the associated Akaike weights and Evidence Ratios. For each metabolite, the 2-enzyme model provided a better fit than the 1-enzyme model with ΔAIC values decreasing in the order 9.511 for MA, 7.379 for PH, 1.417 for CA, and 0.193 for HQ. The corresponding weights of evidence favoring the 2-enzyme model (Evidence Ratios) were: 116.2:1 for MA, 40.0:1 for PH, 2.0:1 for CA and 1.1:1 for HQ. These results indicate that our earlier findings from models of total metabolites were driven largely by MA, representing the ring-opening pathway, and by PH, representing the ring-hydroxylation pathway. The predicted percentage of benzene metabolized by the putative high-affinity enzyme at an air concentration of 0.001. ppm was 88% based upon urinary MA and was 80% based upon urinary PH. As benzene concentrations increased, the respective percentages of benzene metabolized to MA and PH by the high-affinity enzyme decreased successively to 66 and 77% at 0.1. ppm, 20 and 58% at 1. ppm, and 2.7 and 17% at 10. ppm. This indicates that the putative high-affinity enzyme was active primarily below 1. ppm and favored the ring-opening pathway. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


PubMed | Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Institute of occupational Health and Poison Control and Henan Cancer Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2014

Incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has increased sharply in Western Europe and United States over the past three decades. Nearly all cases of EAC in the west are thought to be associated with Barretts esophagus (BE) at the time of diagnosis. Regions in the Henan province of China have one of worlds highest incidences of esophageal cancer, yet recent temporal trends in the relative rates of EAC with respect to esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC), as well as its association with Barretts esophagus (BE), have not been reported. In this report, we present large-scale longitudinal clinical and histological data on 5401 esophageal cancers (EC) patients diagnosed during the recent 10-year period (2002-2011) at Henan Cancer Hospital, China. All 217 esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) patients from these 5401 EC patients were examined to better understand the relationship between Barretts esophagus (BE) and EAC. We found that EAC was relatively rare and accounted for approximately 5% of all esophageal cancers each year during 2002-2011. There is no evidence of significant temporal trends in the rate of EAC relative to ESCC. Only 10 out of 217 (4.6%) EAC cases were detected to have any evidence of Barretts esophagus. This result raises the possibility of a different etiological basis for EAC in China motivating more detailed epidemiological, clinical and molecular characterization of EAC in China in order to better understand the neoplastic development of EAC.


Bassig B.A.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Zhang L.,University of California at Berkeley | Cawthon R.M.,University of Utah | Smith M.T.,University of California at Berkeley | And 9 more authors.
Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis | Year: 2014

Exposure to benzene, a known leukemogen and probable lymphomagen, has been demonstrated to result in oxidative stress, which has previously been associated with altered telomere length (TL). TL specifically has been associated with several health outcomes in epidemiologic studies, including cancer risk, and has been demonstrated to be altered following exposure to a variety of chemical agents. To evaluate the association between benzene exposure and TL, we measured TL by monochrome multiplex quantitative PCR in 43 workers exposed to high levels of benzene and 43 age and sex-matched unexposed workers in Shanghai, China. Benzene exposure levels were monitored using organic vapor passive dosimetry badges before phlebotomy. The median benzene exposure level in exposed workers was 31 ppm. The mean TL in controls, workers exposed to levels of benzene below the median (≤31 ppm), and above the median (>31 ppm) was 1.26±0.17, 1.25±0.16, and 1.37±0.23, respectively. Mean TL was significantly elevated in workers exposed to >31 ppm of benzene compared with controls (P=0.03). Our findings provide evidence that high levels of occupational benzene exposure are associated with TL. © [2014]. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.


Bassig B.A.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Zhang L.,University of California at Berkeley | Vermeulen R.,University Utrecht | Tang X.,Guangdong Poison Control Center | And 23 more authors.
Carcinogenesis | Year: 2016

Benzene, formaldehyde (FA) and trichloroethylene (TCE) are ubiquitous chemicals in workplaces and the general environment. Benzene is an established myeloid leukemogen and probable lymphomagen. FA is classified as a myeloid leukemogen but has not been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), whereas TCE has been associated with NHL but not myeloid leukemia. Epidemiologic associations between FA and myeloid leukemia, and between benzene, TCE and NHL are, however, still debated. Previously, we showed that these chemicals are associated with hematotoxicity in cross-sectional studies of factory workers in China, which included extensive personal monitoring and biological sample collection. Here, we compare and contrast patterns of hematotoxicity, monosomy 7 in myeloid progenitor cells (MPCs), and B-cell activation biomarkers across these studies to further evaluate possible mechanisms of action and consistency of effects with observed hematologic cancer risks. Workers exposed to benzene or FA, but not TCE, showed declines in cell types derived from MPCs, including granulocytes and platelets. Alterations in lymphoid cell types, including B cells and CD4+ T cells, and B-cell activation markers were apparent in workers exposed to benzene or TCE. Given that alterations in myeloid and lymphoid cell types are associated with hematological malignancies, our data provide biologic insight into the epidemiological evidence linking benzene and FA exposure with myeloid leukemia risk, and TCE and benzene exposure with NHL risk. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press 2016.


Rothman N.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Bassig B.A.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Zhang L.,University of California at Berkeley | Vermeulen R.,University Utrecht | And 12 more authors.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2016

The relationship between occupational benzene exposure and levels of immune markers measured using a multiplex panel was studied. Personal benzene exposure was monitored in workers using a 3 M organic vapor passive monitoring badge before phlebotomy. The differences in marker concentrations between benzene exposed vs. unexposed workers, and the exposure-response trends were evaluated. BCA-1 (45% reduction overall) and IL-17A (38% reduction overall) were significantly reduced in both lower and higher exposed workers compared to unexposed workers. Occupational exposure to benzene was associated with a range of immune perturbations, including alterations in markers that regulate B-cell chemotaxis and regulation of cytotoxic T-cell activity.


Shen M.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Zhang L.,University of California at Berkeley | Lee K.-M.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Lee K.-M.,Korea University | And 8 more authors.
Experimental and Molecular Medicine | Year: 2011

Benzene, a recognized hematotoxicant and carcinogen, can damage the human immune system. We studied the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in innate immunity and benzene hematotoxicity in a cross-sectional study of workers exposed to benzene (250 workers and 140 controls). A total of 1,236 tag SNPs in 149 gene regions of six pathways were included in the analysis. Six gene regions were significant for their association with white blood cell (WBC) counts (MBP, VCAM1, ALOX5, MPO, RAC2, and CRP) based on gene-region (P < 0.05) and SNP analyses (FDR < 0.05). VCAM1 rs3176867, ALOX5 rs7099684, and MPO rs2071409 were the three most significant SNPs. They showed similar effects on WBC subtypes, especially granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes. A 3-SNP block in ALOXE3 (rs7215658, rs9892383, and rs3027208) showed a global association (omnibus P = 0.0008) with WBCs even though the three SNPs were not significant individually. Our study suggests that polymorphisms in innate immunity genes may play a role in benzene-induced hematotoxicity; however, independent replication is necessary.


Thomas R.,University of California at Berkeley | Mchale C.M.,University of California at Berkeley | Lan Q.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Hubbard A.E.,University of California at Berkeley | And 7 more authors.
Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis | Year: 2013

The mechanism of toxicity of the leukemogen benzene is not entirely known. This pilot study used RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) technology to examine the effect of benzene exposure on gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from 10 workers occupationally exposed to high levels of benzene (≥5 ppm) in air and 10 matched unexposed control workers, from a large study (n = 125) in which gene expression was previously measured by microarray. RNA-seq is more sensitive and has a wider dynamic range for the quantification of gene expression. Further, it has the ability to detect novel transcripts and alternative splice variants. The main conclusions from our analysis of the 20 workers by RNA-seq are as follows: The Pearson correlation between the two technical replicates for the RNA-seq experiments was 0.98 and the correlation between RNA-seq and microarray signals for the 20 subjects was around 0.6. 60% of the transcripts with detected reads from the RNA-seq experiments did not have corresponding probes on the microarrays. Fifty-three percent of the transcripts detected by RNA-seq and 99% of those with probes on the microarray were protein-coding. There was a significant overlap (P < 0.05) in transcripts declared differentially expressed due to benzene exposure using the two technologies. About 20% of the transcripts declared differentially expressed using the RNA-seq data were non-coding transcripts. Six transcripts were determined (false-discovery rate < 0.05) to be alternatively spliced as a result of benzene exposure. Overall, this pilot study shows that RNA-seq can complement the information obtained by microarray in the analysis of changes in transcript expression from chemical exposures. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 54:566-573, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Zhang L.,University of California at Berkeley | Lan Q.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Guo W.,University of California at Berkeley | Hubbard A.E.,University of California at Berkeley | And 9 more authors.
Carcinogenesis | Year: 2011

Evidence suggests that de novo, therapy-related and benzeneinduced acute myeloid leukemias (AML) occur via similar cytogenetic and genetic pathways, several of which involve aneuploidy, the loss or gain of chromosomes. Aneuploidy of specific chromosomes has been detected in benzene-related leukemia patients as well as in healthy benzene-exposed workers, suggesting that aneuploidy precedes and may be a potential mechanism underlying benzene-induced leukemia. Here, we analyzed the peripheral blood lymphocytes of 47 exposed workers and 27 unexposed controls using a novel OctoChrome fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique that simultaneously detects aneuploidy in all 24 chromosomes. Through this chromosome-wide aneuploidy study (CWAS) approach, we found heterogeneity in the monosomy and trisomy rates of the 22 autosomes when plotted against continuous benzene exposure. In addition, statistically significant, chromosome-specific increases in the rates of monosomy [5,6, 7, 10, 16 and 19] and trisomy [5,6, 7, 8, 10, 14, 16, 21 and 22] were found to be dose dependently associated with benzene exposure. Furthermore, significantly higher rates of monosomy and trisomy were observed in a priori defined 'susceptible' chromosome sets compared with all other chromosomes. Together, these findings confirm that benzene exposure is associated with specific chromosomal aneuploidies in hematopoietic cells, which suggests that such aneuploidies may play roles in benzene-induced leukemogenesis. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.


McHale C.M.,University of California at Berkeley | Zhang L.,University of California at Berkeley | Lan Q.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Vermeulen R.,University Utrecht | And 10 more authors.
Environmental Health Perspectives | Year: 2011

Background: Benzene, an established cause of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), may also cause one or more lymphoid malignancies in humans. Previously, we identified genes and pathways associated with exposure to high (> 10 ppm) levels of benzene through transcriptomic analyses of blood cells from a small number of occupationally exposed workers.Objectives: The goals of this study were to identify potential biomarkers of benzene exposure and/or early effects and to elucidate mechanisms relevant to risk of hematotoxicity, leukemia, and lymphoid malignancy in occupationally exposed individuals, many of whom were exposed to benzene levels < 1 ppm, the current U.S. occupational standard. Methods: We analyzed global gene expression in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 125 workers exposed to benzene levels ranging from < 1 ppm to > 10 ppm. Study design and analysis with a mixed-effects model minimized potential confounding and experimental variability.Results: We observed highly significant widespread perturbation of gene expression at all exposure levels. The AML pathway was among the pathways most significantly associated with benzene exposure. Immune response pathways were associated with most exposure levels, potentially providing biological plausibility for an association between lymphoma and benzene exposure. We identified a 16-gene expression signature associated with all levels of benzene exposure.Conclusions: Our findings suggest that chronic benzene exposure, even at levels below the current U.S. occupational standard, perturbs many genes, biological processes, and pathways. These findings expand our understanding of the mechanisms by which benzene may induce hematotoxicity, leukemia, and lymphoma and reveal relevant potential biomarkers associated with a range of exposures.


PubMed | Institute of Occupational Health and Poison Control, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and Henan Cancer Hospital
Type: | Journal: Human genomics | Year: 2015

Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) is among the leading causes of cancer mortality, especially in developed countries. A high level of somatic copy number alterations (CNAs) accumulates over the decades in the progression from Barretts esophagus, the precursor lesion, to EA. Accurate identification of somatic CNAs is essential to understand cancer development. Many studies have been conducted for the detection of CNA in EA using microarrays. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies are believed to have advantages in sensitivity and accuracy to detect CNA, yet no NGS-based CNA detection in EA has been reported.In this study, we analyzed whole-exome (WES) and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data for detecting CNA from a published large-scale genomic study of EA. Two specific comparisons were conducted. First, the recurrent CNAs based on WGS and WES data from 145 EA samples were compared to those found in five previous microarray-based studies. We found that the majority of the previously identified regions were also detected in this study. Interestingly, some novel amplifications and deletions were discovered using the NGS data. In particular, SKI and PRKCZ detected in a deletion region are involved in transforming growth factor- pathway, suggesting the potential utility of novel biomarkers for EA. Second, we compared CNAs detected in WGS and WES data from the same 15 EA samples. No large-scale CNA was identified statistically more frequently by WES or WGS, while more focal-scale CNAs were detected by WGS than by WES.Our results suggest that NGS can replace microarrays to detect CNA in EA. WGS is superior to WES in that it can offer finer resolution for the detection, though if the interest is on recurrent CNAs, WES can be preferable to WGS for its cost-effectiveness.

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