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Tang-Peronard J.L.,University of Southern Denmark | Tang-Peronard J.L.,Copenhagen University | Heitmann B.L.,Copenhagen University | Heitmann B.L.,University of Southern Denmark | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Background: Chemicals with endocrine-disrupting abilities may act as obesogens and interfere with the body's natural weight-control mechanisms, especially if exposure occurs during prenatal life. Objective: We examined the association between prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p,p′ -dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and subsequent obesity at 5 and 7 y of age. Design: From 1997 to 2000, 656 pregnant Faroese women were recruited. PCB and DDE were measured in maternal serum and breast milk, and children's weight, height, and waist circumference (WC) were measured at clinical examinations at 5 and 7 y of age. The change in body mass index (BMI) from 5 to 7 y of age was calculated. Analyses were performed by using multiple linear regression models for girls and boys separately, taking into account maternal prepregnancy BMI. Results: For 7-y-old girls who had overweight mothers, PCB was associated with increased BMI (β = 2.07, P = 0.007), and PCB and DDE were associated with an increased change in BMI from 5 to 7 y of age (PCB: β = 1.23, P = 0.003; DDE: β = 1.11, P = 0.008). No association was observed with BMI in girls with normal-weight mothers. PCB was associated with increased WC in girls with overweight mothers (β = 2.48, P = 0.001) and normal-weight mothers (β = 1.25, P = 0.04); DDE was associated with increased WC only in girls with overweight mothers (β = 2.21, P = 0.002). No associations were observed between PCB or DDE and BMI in 5-y-old girls. For boys, no associations were observed. Conclusions: Results suggest that prenatal exposure to PCB and DDE may play a role for subsequent obesity development. Girls whose mothers have a high prepregnancy BMI seem most affected. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition. Source

McArthur J.O.,Discipline of Nutrition and Metabolism | Petocz P.,University of Sydney | Petocz P.,Macquarie University | Caterson I.D.,Discipline of Nutrition and Metabolism | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the American College of Nutrition

Objectives: Limited information is available on the role of pork meat in influencing iron status. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of consuming pork meat as compared to iron supplementation on nutritional status and feeling of well-being. Methods: Young women were randomly assigned to a control diet (CG), a pork-containing diet (PG), or a control diet with iron supplementation (SG) for 12 weeks. Sixty-five women aged 24.6 6 4.4 years (mean 6 SD) completed the trial. Results: Serum ferritin concentrations were increased significantly (p< 0.001) in participants assigned to the SG as compared with the other groups, as assessed by repeated-measures analysis of variance. At week 12, hemoglobin concentrations were significantly higher in PG and SG as compared with CG. Plasma zinc concentrations at the end of the intervention were similar to baseline concentrations for individuals in the CG and PG but were decreased significantly (p< 0.05) in SG. Plasma-, erythrocyte-folate, and serum vitamin B6 and B12 concentrations were not significantly affected by the intervention, although the concentrations of vitamins B6 and B12 tended to increase in PG. Well-being, as measured using the Health Survey Short Form (SF-36) and its 8 multi-item scales, showed significant improvement in vitality in SG (p< 0.05) and bodily pain in PG (p< 0.05). No significant relationships were observed between these health concept scores and biomarkers of nutritional status. Conclusions: Consumption of pork meat by young women maintains hemoglobin levels to the same extent as low-dose iron supplementation and enhances the components of well-being, mainly their perception of bodily pain. Source

Kaldor J.C.,Sydney Law School | Magnusson R.S.,Sydney Law School | Colagiuri S.,Boden Institute of Obesity
Medical Journal of Australia

Type 2 diabetes mellitus, driven by overweight and obesity linked to unhealthy diets, is the fastestgrowing non-communicable disease in Australia. Halting the rise of diabetes will require a paradigm shift from personal to shared responsibility, with greater accountability from Australian governments and the food industry. It will also require governments to try something different to the prevailing approaches emphasising education and the provision of information. We propose four priority areas where government regulation could strengthen Australia’s response. Those areas relate to mandatory front-of-pack food labelling, regulating junk food advertising, better oversight of food reformulation and taxing sugarsweetened beverages. © 2015, Australasian Medical Publishing Co. Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Tang-Peronard J.L.,University of Southern Denmark | Tang-Peronard J.L.,Copenhagen University | Jensen T.K.,University of Southern Denmark | Andersen H.R.,University of Southern Denmark | And 8 more authors.
Obesity Facts

Background: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have metabolic disrupting abilities and are suggested to contribute to the obesity epidemic. We investigated whether serum concentrations of POPs at 8-10 years of age were associated with subsequent development of overweight at age 14-16 and 20-22 years. Methods: The study was based on data from the European Youth Heart Study, Danish component (1997). Concentrations of several polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and the organochlorine pesticides p,p-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were measured in serum from children aged 8-10 years (n = 509). Information on BMI z-scores, waist circumference and % body fat were collected at clinical examinations at ages 8-10, 14-16 and 20-22 years. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed taking potential confounders into account. Results: Overall, POP serum concentrations were low: median ΣPCB 0.18 μg/g lipid, DDE 0.04 μg/g lipid and HCB 0.03 μg/g lipid. POPs were generally not associated with weight gain at 14-16 and 20-22 years of age, except for an inverse association among the highest exposed girls at 20-22 years of age, which might possibly be explained by multiple testing or residual confounding. Conclusion: This study suggests that, in a low exposed population, childhood serum concentrations of PCB, DDE, and HCB are not associated with subsequent weight gain. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg. Source

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