Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods INAF


Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods INAF

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Drouin-Chartier J.-P.,Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods INAF | Hogue J.-C.,Laval University | Tremblay A.J.,Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods INAF | Bergeron J.,Laval University | And 3 more authors.
Lipids in Health and Disease | Year: 2017

Background Previous studies have reported high plasma concentrations of both intestinal apolipoprotein (apo) B-48-containing lipoproteins and PCSK9 in subjects with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). However, the extent to which LDL receptor deficiency and PCSK9 levels influence plasma apoB-48 concentrations in humans remains to be fully characterized. The objective of the study was to assess the independent association between FH, PCSK9 concentrations and plasma apoB-48 levels in a large cohort of genetically defined FH heterozygotes (HeFH) and homozygotes (HoFH). Methods A total of 118 HeFH, 6 HoFH, and 117 controls were included in the study. Plasma PCSK9 and apoB-48 concentrations were measured in the fasting state. Results Plasma PCSK9 and apoB-48 levels were higher in FH subjects compared with controls (PCSK9: HoFH: 642.6 ± 246.9 vs. HeFH: 324.9 ± 119.8 vs. controls: 194.5 ± 65.9 ng/mL, P < 0.0001; apoB-48: HoFH: 14.71 ± 4.36 vs. HeFH: 6.55 ± 4.24 vs. controls: 3.03 ± 2.07 μg/mL; P < 0.0001). There were no correlations between apoB-48 and PCSK9 plasma levels in both controls (ρ = 0.06, P = 0.5) and HeFH subjects (ρ = 0.07, P = 0.4). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the FH status was the only independent factor associated with apoB-48 levels, contributing to 28.7% of the variance (P < 0.0001). Conclusions These data indicate that the elevation in plasma apoB-48 levels associated with FH is independent of PCSK9 levels. Trial registration NCT02225340. © 2017 The Author(s).

Guenard F.,Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods INAF | Guenard F.,Laval University | Tchernof A.,Laval University | Tchernof A.,Quebec Heart and Lung Institute | And 10 more authors.
Translational Research | Year: 2017

A genetic influence on methylation levels has been reported and methylation quantitative trait loci (meQTL) have been identified in various tissues. The contribution of genetic and epigenetic factors in the development of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) has also been noted. To pinpoint candidate genes for testing the association of SNPs with MetS and its components, we aimed to evaluate the contribution of genetic variations to differentially methylated CpG sites in severely obese men discordant for MetS. A genome-wide differential methylation analysis was conducted in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of 31 severely obese men discordant for MetS (16 with and 15 without MetS) and identified ∼17,800 variable CpG sites. The genome-wide association study conducted to identify the SNPs (meQTL) associated with methylation levels at variable CpG sites revealed 2292 significant associations (P < 2.22 × 10-11) involving 2182 unique meQTLs regulating the methylation levels of 174 variable CpG sites. Two meQTLs disrupting CpG sites located within the collagen-encoding COL11A2 gene were tested for associations with MetS and its components in a cohort of 3021 obese individuals. Rare alleles of these meQTLs showed association with plasma fasting glucose levels. Further analysis conducted on these meQTL suggested a biological impact mediated through the disruption of transcription factor (TF)-binding sites based on the prediction of TF-binding affinities. The current study identified meQTL in the VAT of severely obese men and revealed associations of two COL11A2 meQTL with fasting glucose levels. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.

Fan Q.,Jiangnan University | Wang L.,Jiangnan University | Song Y.,Shandong University of Technology | Fang Z.,Jiangnan University | And 3 more authors.
International Dairy Journal | Year: 2017

Whey protein isolate (WPI) is often used in food emulsions and can also interact with resveratrol, a natural amphiphilic polyphenol, this interaction being improved by heat-denaturation. In this study, oil-in-water emulsions stabilised by heat-denatured WPI in the absence and presence of CaCl2 were characterised in terms of size, ζ-potential and protein partition. Partition and stability of resveratrol were also studied as a function of WPI and calcium concentrations. Size of WPI emulsions was dependent on the protein content at the oil–water interface. Partition of resveratrol and WPI was positively proportional at the oil–water interface and in the continuous phase. The stability of resveratrol increased as the concentration of WPI increased, but decreased when the concentration of calcium exceeded 0.20 mM. These data should be useful for simultaneous encapsulation of hydrophobic and amphiphilic bioactive components in a single emulsion and the protection of the inner oil by combination of antioxidant addition. © 2017

Pelletier S.,Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods INAF | Pelletier S.,University LavalQuebec | Serre E.,Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods INAF | Serre E.,University LavalQuebec | And 4 more authors.
Separation and Purification Technology | Year: 2017

Cranberry is well recognized for its beneficial effects on human health, but consumption of cranberry juice is limited due to its high acidity (high organic acid content) which is the cause of undesirable side effects such as diarrhea, vomiting and bloating. Therefore, the acidity could be reduced to improve the palatability of the juice and to decrease these side effects. Deacidification of juices by conventional electrodialysis and by electrodialysis with bipolar membranes (EDBM) using direct current (DC) has been shown to be very effective in comparison with chemical methods, such as calcium salt precipitation or ion-exchange resin. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of applying a pulsed electric field (PEF) during EDBM on cranberry juice deacidification and electrodialytic parameters. The PEF procedure consists of introducing an electric pulse and a pause consecutively for a given time. PEF has numerous advantages such as reducing fouling and increasing current efficiency. Nine different pulse/pause combinations were tested: 1 s/0.1 s, 1 s/1 s, 2 s/2 s, 6 s/0.1 s, 6 s/1 s, 6 s/2 s, 10 s/0.1 s, 10 s/1 s, and 10 s/2 s. Cranberry juice was deacidified about 15–18% faster using PEFs and the energy consumption decreased by 7–10% for 1 s/1 s and 2 s/2 s conditions in comparison to DC conditions. In both PEF conditions, the migration of citric and malic acid anions was faster, thus leading to an increased rate of deacidification. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the efficiency of using PEF for the deacidification of fruit juice. EDBM under PEF would be a green and sustainable alternative process for deacidifying fruit juice and preserving its organoleptic characteristics. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Serre E.,Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods INAF | Serre E.,Laval University | Boutin Y.,Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods INAF | Langevin M.-E.,Eurodia Ameridia Center | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Functional Foods | Year: 2016

Cranberry juice is a well-known functional juice that has many beneficial effects on human health. However, it also has a high concentration of organic acids which may cause gastrointestinal discomfort. Hence, the organic acid content in cranberry juice was reduced to different levels of deacidification (0%, 19%, 37%, 50%, and 77%) by electrodialysis to study the impact of the deacidification rate on intestinal cell integrity. Before in vitro tests on Caco-2 cells, all samples underwent three steps of in vitro digestion: oral, gastric and intestinal. Digested and deacidified cranberry juices were applied to Caco-2 cells and the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) was measured after 24 hours of contact to evaluate the resulting cell integrity. In the presence of deacidified cranberry juice, the integrity of caco-2 cell monolayers measured by the ΔTEER was increased by 56% in comparison with raw cranberry juice, but a minimal deacidification rate of 37% was necessary to reach this level of protection. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

Guenard F.,Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods INAF | Guenard F.,Laval University | Guenard F.,Chu Of Quebec Research Center | Tchernof A.,Laval University | And 11 more authors.
Physiological Genomics | Year: 2014

Obesity is associated with an increased risk of Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The severely obese population is heterogeneous regarding CVD risk profile. Our objective was to identify metabolic pathways potentially associated with development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) through an analysis of overrepresented pathways from differentially methylated genes between severely obese men with (MetS +) and without (MetS -) the MetS. Genome-wide quantitative DNA methylation analysis in VAT of severely obese men was carried out using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Differences in methylation levels between MetS+ (n = 7) and MetS- (n = 7) groups were tested. Overrepresented pathways from the list of differentially methylated genes were identified and visualized with the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis system. Differential methylation analysis between MetS+ and MetS- groups identified 8,578 methylation probes (3,258 annotated genes) with significant differences in methylation levels (false discovery rate-corrected DiffScore > {pipe}13{pipe} ~P < 0.05). Pathway analysis from differentially methylated genes identified 41 overrepresented (P < 0.05) pathways. The most overrepresented pathways were related to structural components of the cell membrane, inflammation and immunity and cell cycle regulation. This study provides potential targets associated with adipose tissue dysfunction and development of the MetS. © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

Gaudreau H.,Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods INAF | Gaudreau H.,Laval University | Champagne C.P.,Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods INAF | Champagne C.P.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | And 7 more authors.
Food Research International | Year: 2016

Exposure to oxygen can cause a decrease in growth rates or a complete inhibition of growth of oxygen-sensitive probiotic bacteria. A recent study in our laboratory demonstrated that the growth of an oxygen-sensitive strain, Lactobacillus helveticus, was stimulated, under aerobic conditions, when the culture medium was enriched with green tea extracts (GTE). However, information on the mechanism by which GTE influenced the growth, in the presence of oxygen, of that strain is limited. In the present work, the effects of GTE concentrations (to 2000 μg/mL) and exposure to oxygen on maximal populations of L. helveticus R0052 cells and bacterial lipids were evaluated using viable counts, infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography analyses. Supplementation of the culture medium with 0 to 500 μg/mL GTE did not have an effect on the populations reached under microaerophilic conditions and on bacterial lipid structure and composition. However, at 2000 μg/mL GTE, high population levels were reached under microaerophilic conditions concomitant with an increase in lipid order and with important changes in fatty acid composition of the bacterial lipids. Interactions between GTE components and bacterial lipids were shown by spectroscopic results. Moreover, bacterial cells have adapted to the presence of 2000 μg/mL GTE in the growth medium by changing their lipid composition. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first to establish a relationship between the effects of GTE at 2000 μg/mL on bacterial cell's lipids and a stimulation of growth under microaerophilic conditions of an oxygen-sensitive strain. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Araya-Farias M.,Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods INAF | Araya-Farias M.,Laval University | Araya-Farias M.,CNRS Galen Institute | Gaudreau A.,Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods INAF | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

An effective and rapid HPLC-MS method for the simultaneous separation of the eight most abundant tea catechins, gallic acid, and caffeine was developed. These compounds were rapidly separated within 9 min by a linear gradient elution using a Zorbax SB-C18 packed with sub 2 μm particles. This methodology did not require preparative and semipreparative HPLC steps. In fact, diluted tea samples can be easily analyzed using HPLC-MS as described in this study. The use of mass spectrometry detection for quantification of catechins ensured a higher specificity of the method. The percent relative standard deviation was generally lower than 4 and 7% for most of the compounds tested in tea drinks and tea extracts, respectively. Furthermore, the method provided excellent resolution for folate determination alone or in combination with catechins. To date, no HPLC method able to discriminate catechins and folates in a quick analysis has been reported in the literature. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Serre E.,Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods INAF | Serre E.,Laval University | Rozoy E.,Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods INAF | Rozoy E.,Laval University | And 4 more authors.
Separation and Purification Technology | Year: 2016

Cranberry is a typical fruit from North America having a very high acidity that makes raw juice hardly acceptable for consumers. In this study, the reduction of juice acidity was investigated using electrodialysis (ED) with different types of membranes and cell configurations. Electrodialysis is an ecofriendly membrane technology used in a large range of food applications. Three different ED configurations were tested at the laboratory scale: Bipolar and anion-exchange membranes (ED2MB), bipolar and ultrafiltration membranes (ED2MBUF), and cation-exchange and ultrafiltration membranes (EDUF). Each configuration was evaluated in terms of juice physicochemical parameters (titratable acidity, conductivity, total soluble solids, color, anthocyanins, organic acids and mineral contents) and electrodialytic parameters (membrane conductivity and thicknesses, global system resistance). In ED2MB configuration, a 40% deacidification rate was reached after 3 h of treatment (80% after 6 h) whereas 0% and only 8% were obtained after 3 h with ED2MBUF and EDUF configurations, respectively. Furthermore, a selective migration of organic acids was observed with the ED2MB configuration: Citric acid (22 ppm/min), malic acid (11 ppm/min) and quinic acid (6.5 ppm/min). Consequently, ED2MB configuration allows the deacidification of cranberry juice and the production of pure acids (no waste generated) without any chemical consumption due to the bipolar membrane in-situ generation of proton and hydroxyl species from water. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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