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Lamprecht M.,Medical University of Graz | Lamprecht M.,Institute of Nutrient Research and Sport Nutrition | Frauwallner A.,Austrian Society of Probiotic Medicine | Frauwallner A.,Forschungs und Vertriebs GmbH
Medicine and Sport Science | Year: 2013

Athletes exposed to high-intensity exercise show an increased occurrence of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms like cramps, diarrhea, bloating, nausea, and bleeding. These problems have been associated with alterations in intestinal permeability and decreased gut barrier function. The increased GI permeability, a so-called 'leaky gut', also leads to endotoxemia, and results in increased susceptibility to infectious and autoimmune diseases, due to absorption of pathogens/toxins into tissue and the bloodstream. Key components that determine intestinal barrier function and GI permeability are tight junctions, protein structures located in the paracellular channels between epithelial cells of the intestinal wall. The integrity of tight junctions depends on sophisticated interactions between the gut residents and their expressed substances, the intestinal epithelial cell metabolism and the activities of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Probiotic supplements are an upcoming group of nutraceuticals that could offer positive effects on athlete's gut and entire health. Some results demonstrate promising benefits for probiotic use on the athlete's immune system. There is also evidence that probiotic supplementation can beneficially influence intestinal barrier integrity in acute diseases. With regard to exercise-induced GI permeability problems, there is still a lack of studies with appropriate data and a gap to understand the underlying mechanisms to support such health beneficial statements implicitly. This article refers (i) to exercise-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction, (ii) provides suggestions to estimate increased gut barrier permeability in athletes, and (iii) discusses the potential of probiotic supplementation to counteract an exercise-induced leaky gut. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source


Lamprecht M.,Medical University of Graz | Lamprecht M.,Institute of Nutrient Research and Sport Nutrition | Bogner S.,Medical University of Graz | Bogner S.,Institute of Nutrient Research and Sport Nutrition | And 7 more authors.
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition | Year: 2012

Background: Probiotics are an upcoming group of nutraceuticals claiming positive effects on athlete's gut health, redox biology and immunity but there is lack of evidence to support these statements.Methods: We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled trial to observe effects of probiotic supplementation on markers of intestinal barrier, oxidation and inflammation, at rest and after intense exercise. 23 trained men received multi-species probiotics (1010 CFU/day, Ecologic®Performance or OMNi-BiOTiC®POWER, n = 11) or placebo (n = 12) for 14 weeks and performed an intense cycle ergometry over 90 minutes at baseline and after 14 weeks. Zonulin and α1-antitrypsin were measured from feces to estimate gut leakage at baseline and at the end of treatment. Venous blood was collected at baseline and after 14 weeks, before and immediately post exercise, to determine carbonyl proteins (CP), malondialdehyde (MDA), total oxidation status of lipids (TOS), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Statistical analysis used multifactorial analysis of variance (ANOVA). Level of significance was set at p < 0.05, a trend at p < 0.1.Results: Zonulin decreased with supplementation from values slightly above normal into normal ranges (<30 ng/ml) and was significantly lower after 14 weeks with probiotics compared to placebo (p = 0.019). We observed no influence on α1-antitrypsin (p > 0.1). CP increased significantly from pre to post exercise in both groups at baseline and in the placebo group after 14 weeks of treatment (p = 0.006). After 14 weeks, CP concentrations were tendentially lower with probiotics (p = 0.061). TOS was slightly increased above normal in both groups, at baseline and after 14 weeks of treatment. There was no effect of supplementation or exercise on TOS. At baseline, both groups showed considerably higher TNF-α concentrations than normal. After 14 weeks TNF-α was tendentially lower in the supplemented group (p = 0.054). IL-6 increased significantly from pre to post exercise in both groups (p = 0.001), but supplementation had no effect. MDA was not influenced, neither by supplementation nor by exercise.Conclusions: The probiotic treatment decreased Zonulin in feces, a marker indicating enhanced gut permeability. Moreover, probiotic supplementation beneficially affected TNF-α and exercise induced protein oxidation. These results demonstrate promising benefits for probiotic use in trained men.Clinical trial registry: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, identifier: NCT01474629. © 2012 Lamprecht et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Lamprecht M.,Medical University of Graz | Lamprecht M.,Institute of Nutrient Research and Sport Nutrition | Bogner S.,Institute of Nutrient Research and Sport Nutrition | Steinbauer K.,SportchirurgiePlus | And 11 more authors.
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition | Year: 2015

Background: Zeolites are crystalline compounds with microporous structures of Si-tetrahedrons. In the gut, these silicates could act as adsorbents, ion-exchangers, catalysts, detergents or anti-diarrheic agents. This study evaluated whether zeolite supplementation affects biomarkers of intestinal wall permeability and parameters of oxidation and inflammation in aerobically trained individuals, and whether it could improve their performance. Methods: In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled trial, 52 endurance trained men and women, similar in body fat, non-smokers, 20-50 years, received 1.85 g of zeolite per day for 12 weeks. Stool samples for determination of intestinal wall integrity biomarkers were collected. From blood, markers of redox biology, inflammation, and DNA damage were determined at the beginning and the end of the study. In addition, VO2max and maximum performance were evaluated at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. For statistical analyses a 2-factor ANOVA was used. Results: At baseline both groups showed slightly increased stool zonulin concentrations above normal. After 12 weeks with zeolite zonulin was significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in the supplemented group. IL-10 increased tendentially (p < 0.1) in the zeolite group. There were no significant changes observed in the other measured parameters. Conclusions: Twelve weeks of zeolite supplementation exerted beneficial effects on intestinal wall integrity as indicated via decreased concentrations of the tight junction modulator zonulin. This was accompanied by mild anti-inflammatory effects in this cohort of aerobically trained subjects. Further research is needed to explore mechanistic explanations for the observations in this study. © 2015 Lamprecht et al. Source

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