Mangas A.,Institute of Neurosciences of Castilla and Leon INCYL |
Covenas R.,Institute of Neurosciences of Castilla and Leon INCYL |
Geffard M.,IMS Laboratory
Current Opinion in Neurology | Year: 2010
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune and inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that causes neurological disability in young adults and that to date has no cure. Until now, expensive and only partially efficacious therapies have become available. For this reason, researchers, clinicians and pharmaceutical companies are currently investigating new drugs for the treatment of MS. Here, we review the most recent data on drug candidates for MS. RECENT FINDINGS: In the preclinical phase, such drug candidates have shown a beneficial effect on the onset of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (microtubule-stabilizing drugs, MS14, Lithium, GEMSP⋯), a decrease in CNS cell infiltrates (recombinant T cell receptor ligand, lovastatin-rolipram, ribavirin, GEMSP⋯), prevention of demyelination (lovastatin-rolipram, calpain inhibitor, lithium⋯); and a reduction of axonal loss (phenytoin, lovastatin-rolipram, calpain inhibitor). In clinical trials, drug candidates against MS have shown safety (rituximab, ustekinumab, intravenous immunoglobulin, laquinimod, BHT-3009, fumarate, chaperonin 10, GEMSP⋯), an improvement of gadolinium-enhanced lesions (protiramer, fingolimod, laquinimod, BHT-3009, fumarate, daclizumab⋯), and an improvement of the relapse rate (fingolimod, fumarate⋯). SUMMARY: Future research into MS should focus on a combination of therapies and on the development of drugs directed against the remitting and progressive phases of the disease. In this sense, MS is a very complex multifactorial disease that requires treatment able to cover all the aspects of MS and not only the anti-inflammatory aspect. © 2010 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.